II. Connected Being

A. What Is a Connected Being?

A Connected Being Seen from the Viewpoint of Structure
As stated earlier, each individual truth being contains within itself the correlative elements of subject and object centered on purpose, and these two elements are united through give and receive action. In addition, an individual truth being can also form a relationship of subject and object with other individual truth beings, whereby they can engage in give and receive action. In such a relationship, the individual truth being is called a “connected being.” In other words, when an individual being which has formed an inner four position foundation enters into a relationship with another individual being to form an outer four position foundation, this individual being (an individual truth being) forms a structure which resembles the two stage structure of the Original Image, and is called a connected being.

A Connected Being Seen from the Viewpoint of Purpose
When an individual being is seen as a being with dual purposes, namely, the “purpose for the individual” and the “purpose for the whole,” it can be called a connected being. Its purpose for the individual is to maintain its existence and development as an individual, and its purpose for the whole is to live for the existence and development of the whole.

As examples of dual purposes, let us consider the system of the created world, which extends from the level of elementary particles all the way up to the level of the universe. Elementary particles exist for the purpose of forming atoms, but at the same time, they maintain their own existence as elementary particles. Atoms exist for the purpose of forming molecules, but at the same time, they maintain their own existence as atoms. Molecules exist for the purpose of forming cells and matter, but at the same time they maintain their own existence as molecules. Cells exist for the purpose of forming tissues and organs, but at the same time they maintain their own existence as cells. Atoms and molecules also exist for the purpose of forming minerals, which form all material bodies, such as the earth. The earth exists for the purpose of forming the solar system, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the earth. The solar system exists for the purpose of forming the galaxy, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the solar system. The galaxy exists for the purpose of forming the universe, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the galaxy. Furthermore, the universe exists for the sake of humankind, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the universe.

Human beings are minute beings compared to the vast universe, but their value is greater than the totality of the whole universe. That is why the universe exists for the sake of human beings. In this way, all created beings have dual purposes, namely, their purpose for the individual and their purpose for the whole. Among the various purposes for the whole, which one is the highest purpose? In the created world, the highest purpose is to exist for the sake of human beings. For example, the earth has the purpose of forming the solar system, but at the same time it has the purpose of serving as the dwelling place for human beings. In the case of electrons, they revolve around the atomic nucleus in order to form an atom, but they also do this for human beings by forming all things, which exist for the sake of human beings, since things are objects of human dominion. Thus, each level of created beings―from elementary particles to the universe―exists both for the purpose of being part of a higher-level being and, at the same time, for the sake of humankind. The former purpose is called the “Hyungsang purpose for the whole,” and the latter purpose is called the “Sungsang purpose for the whole.”

For human beings, the purpose for the whole is to exist for the sake of God. Thus, all created beings, from elementary particles to the universe, and to human beings, exist as connected beings with dual purposes. Fig 2.2 illustrates a series of connected beings with dual purposes.

A Connected Being Seen from the Viewpoint of Relationship
We saw previously that the Original Image exists in a two-stage structure, namely, the inner four position foundation and the outer four position foundation. In the created world (including humans), all existing beings exist in a similar two-stage structure: they maintain inner four position foundations as individual truth beings, while at the same time forming outer four position foundations with other individual truth beings. Based on these inner and outer four position foundations, all existing beings are engaged in inner and outer give and receive actions. This structure is the two-stage structure of existence.

In forming an outer four position foundation, a person enters into give and receive action with other persons in six directions, namely, above and below, front and back, and right and left. Taking oneself as the center, above there exist one’s parents, superiors, and elder persons; below there exist one’s children, subordinates, and younger persons; to the front, there are teachers, senior colleagues, and leaders; to the back, there are students, junior colleagues, and followers; to the right, there are brothers and sisters, intimate friends, and intimate colleagues; and to the left, there are competitors, opponents, and strangers. The original way of human life is to form harmonious relationships in all six directions. In this way, a person is related to other persons in six directions. The same thing can be said about all things as well. An individual being, related to other beings in six directions, is a connected being. The six directions of human relationships are illustrated in Fig. 2.3.

Human beings also stand in a relationship with the natural environment. They are susceptible even to the influence of the stars; that is to say, it is commonly held that cosmic rays exert a certain influence on human physiological functions. Needless to say, human beings have a close connection to minerals, plants, and animals. In this sense as well, a human being is a connected being.

A Connected Being Seen from the Viewpoint of Position
In order for an individual being to exist, it necessarily has to be engaged in subject-object relationships with other beings. Hence, an individual being exists standing either in a subject position or in an object position in relation with another being. An individual truth being with such a “position of existence” is also called a connected being. I will explain this topic more in detail when I discuss the “position of existence.”

Materialist Dialectic and Interconnectedness
In relation to the connected being, one can critique the concept of “interconnectedness,” which is one of the main concepts in the materialist dialectic. Stalin, for instance, emphasized the interconnectedness of all things and branded as metaphysical the position of those who regarded things as separate beings:

Contrary to metaphysics, dialectics does not regard nature as an accidental agglomeration of things, of phenomena, unconnected with, isolated from, and independent of, each other, but as a connected and integral whole, in which things, phenomena, are organically connected with, dependent on, and determined by, each other.

From the perspective of Unification Thought, all beings are created in the likeness of God’s dual characteristics, and therefore they exist not only as individual truth beings, but also as connected beings, whereby they are connected, directly or indirectly, with other individual truth beings. From this perspective, we regard the universe as one huge, organic body. The materialist dialectic explains this in terms of interconnectedness. Nevertheless, the materialist dialectic merely acknowledges the inter-connectedness of all things; it does not and can not offer any adequate explanation as to why things are interconnected. Furthermore, for a long time Communists asserted, on the basis of this theory of interconnectedness, that the world laborers must unite for the sake of revolution. Such an assertion is a jump in logic.

In contrast, Unification Thought maintains that each being is interconnected with other beings centering on a purpose. Interconnectedness is something inevitable because every existing being is related to other beings in six directions, above and below, front and back, and right and left. From this perspective, the entire universe can be regarded as an immense, organic body consisting of innumerable individual beings, all of which are mutually interconnected.

B. Subject and Object

I have already explained that an individual truth being has the universal image, which consists of Sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin. Sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin, exist in the relationship of subject and object. An individual truth being, which is a created being, is involved in yet another type of subject and object pair besides Sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin. This pair consists of principal element and subordinate element (or principal being and subordinate being). This situation results from the fact that the created world is temporal and spatial in nature.

For example, the relationships between parents and children in a family, between teachers and students in a school, between the sun and the earth in the solar system, and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in a cell are neither a relationship of Sungsang and Hyungsang nor a relationship of yang and yin. These are relationships of principal element and subordinate element, or principal being and subordinate being.

This shows that there are three kinds of subject and object relationship in any individual truth being, namely, Sungsang and Hyungsang, yang and yin, and principal element (being) and subordinate element (being). All of these resemble the relationship of subject and object as seen in the dual characteristics of God.

The characteristic features of the relationship between subject and object are those of central and dependent, active and passive, dynamic and static, creative and conservative, initiating and responding, outgoing and modest, and so forth. This does not mean that a particular principal element and a particular subordinate element must have all of these characteristics at any given time; they may sometimes be in the relationship of central and dependent, sometimes in the relationship of active and passive, or outgoing and modest, and so forth. Generally speaking, the relationship between the subject and the object is that between one exercising dominion over the other and one receiving dominion from the other.

System of Individual Truth Beings in the Created World
Every existing being contains a correlative relationship of Sungsang and Hyungsang, yang and yin, and principal element (being) and subordinate element (being). This will be explained through a few selected examples of individual truth beings on different levels, extending from the cosmos (macrocosm) down to the smallest elementary particles (microcosm).

The cosmos, however big it may be, is nevertheless an individual truth being. It consists of the spirit world and the physical world (the earthly world). The spirit world is the invisible world, and the physical world is the visible world. These two worlds exist in a relationship of subject and object, which is the relationship between Sungsang and Hyungsang, as in the relationship between spirit self and physical self in a human being.

The universe (i.e., the physical world), in turn, is an individual truth being as well. The universe has a center, and around that center, about 200 billion galaxies (or nebulae) are revolving. In this particular relationship, the center of the universe is the principal element, and each galaxy is a subordinate element. These elements are in the relationship of subject and object. A galaxy, also, is an individual truth being. The galaxy in which we live, for instance, consists of a nucleus and about 200 billion stars. The galactic nucleus is the principal element, and the stars are subordinate elements; these two kinds of elements exist in the relationship of subject and object.

Our sun is one of the stars in our galaxy. The solar system, also, is an individual truth being. The solar system consists of the sun and nine planets. The sun and the planets are in the respective positions of principal element and subordinate elements, forming a relationship of subject and object. The earth, one of the planets in the solar system, is an individual truth being as well. The earth has a core, on one hand, and a surface and crust, on the other. These are the principal element (core) and the subordinate element (surface and crust), forming a relationship of subject and object.

The surface of the earth can, likewise, be regarded as an individual truth being. The earth’s surface consists of natural things, and is inhabited by human beings. Human beings are the principal beings, and natural things are the subordinate beings. Human beings form nations, which are individual truth beings, consisting of a government and people, where the government is the principal element and the people collectively are the subordinate element.

A family, a unit of a nation, is also an individual truth being, consisting of parents and children, or husband and wife. Parents and children are principal and subordinate individuals, whereas husband and wife are yang and yin individuals; both of these are in the relationship of subject and object. An individual person, also, is an individual truth being, consisting of spirit self and physical self. In this case, spirit self and physical self are Sungsang and Hyungsang and they are in the relationship of subject and object.

If we now direct our attention to the physical self, it consists of principal and subordinate elements, the brain and the limbs. Within the human body (physical self), each cell is an individual truth being, consisting of a nucleus as the principal element and the cytoplasm as the subordinate element. The nucleus of the cell, in turn, is an individual truth being, consisting of chromosomes as the principal element and the nuclear sap as the subordinate element. Each chromosome, also, is an individual truth being, consisting of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the principal element and proteins as the subordinate element. DNA is a molecule, which in itself is an individual truth being, consisting of nitrogenous bases (purines and pyrimidines) as the principal element and sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate as the subordinate element. Bases, sugar, and phosphate are formed by atoms. An atom is an individual truth being, consisting of elementary particles: protons and neutrons as the principal element and electrons as the subordinate element. An elementary particle is an individual truth being as well, consisting of a principal element and a subordinate element.

Hence, there are many levels of individual truth beings in the universe, from elementary particles to the cosmos. Each of them consists of correlative elements of subject and object. When an individual truth being is seen from the viewpoint of a higher-level individual truth being, the lower-level being is a component of the higher-level being. For example, the solar system is an individual truth being, consisting of the sun and the planets; when, however, it is seen from the viewpoint of the galaxy (a higher-level individual truth being), the solar system is a component of the galaxy. This means that an “individual truth being” is a relative concept. Moreover, “subject” and “object” are relative concepts as well. For example, the sun is subject to the planets, but in the larger galaxy, it is object to the nucleus of the galaxy. The integrated system of individual truth beings and the correlative elements of subject and object within them are laid out in fig. 2.4.

Types of Subject and Object
The concept of subject and object in Unification Thought differs in important ways from the concept of subject and object in traditional philosophy. This difference must be explained. From an epistemological perspective, a “subject” in traditional philosophy refers to that which cognizes, that is, the consciousness, or the self, whereas an “object” refers to that which is cognized. Thus, an object refers to something which exists either within the consciousness (as an idea or concept) or outside the consciousness (a thing). From an ontological perspective, or in a practical sense, a subject in traditional philosophy refers to an existing being with consciousness (i.e., a human being), whereas an object refers to a being with which the subject is faced. In short, in traditional philosophy subject and object refer to the relationship between consciousness (or the human being) and the thing with which it is faced.

In Unification Thought the concepts of subject and object carry a different meaning. These concepts refer not only to the relationship between a human being and a thing, but also to the relationship between one human being and another human being, and to that between a thing and another thing. These relationships are of four types, as follows:

  1. Original Type: The original type refers to a relationship that is everlasting and universal from the perspective of God’s creation. Examples of such an original type are the relationships between parents and children, husband and wife, teacher and students, star and planets, cell nucleus and cytoplasm, and atomic nucleus and electrons. These relationships never change.
  2. Temporary Type: Relationships that last for only a limited time are of the temporary type. These relationships frequently occur in day-to-day life. One example is the relationship between a lecturer and the audience, which is established when a lecture is being given. Even in relationships of the original type, the positions are sometimes reversed to create a relationship of the temporary type. In a family, for instance, should the husband become absent or sick, the wife will temporarily take on the responsibility of her husband, and when the parents are sick or become old, the children will take on the responsibility of the parents. Such relationships can be regarded as being of the temporary type. But even in such cases, the original type does not totally disappear; thus, they are simply relationships of a temporary type based on the original type.
  3. Alternating Type: When the subject alternates with the object, the relationship is of the alternating type. An example of this is a dialogue between two persons: the one who speaks is the subject, and the one who listens is the object. In a dialogue, however, the person speaking and the person listening alternate with each other―hence, this is a relationship of the alternating type.
  4. Undetermined Type: In certain relationships, the human being freely decides which element is the subject and which is the object. These are called relationships of the undetermined type. In this case, subject and object are not determined objectively. For example, in the relationship between animals and plants, animals discharge carbon dioxide, which is used by plants, and plants, in turn, discharge oxygen, which is used by animals. From the perspective of the flow of oxygen, plants can be regarded as the subject; but, from the perspective of the flow of carbon dioxide, animals can be regarded as the subject. The relationship of subject and object changes depending upon which being a person emphasizes, namely, according to the will of the person. The subject and object in such a case fall under the undetermined type.

Give and Receive Action
When a correlative relationship of subject and object is formed centering on a common purpose, either between two elements within a being or between one being and another being, there comes about an action of giving and receiving a certain element or force. This kind of action between subject and object is called the “give and receive action.” Through this action, the entities involved maintain their existence and are able to move, change, and develop.

For example, when students enroll in a school, a correlative relationship is established between students and teachers. Based on this correlative relationship, the teachers provide instruction, and the students gain new learning. This is a give and receive action. Through this action, knowledge and techniques are transmitted, and also the students’ personality and character are nurtured. Thus, students will feel grateful to the teachers and the teachers will feel satisfied with their vocation.

The following example can more concretely explain the meaning of a correlative relationship. When a man and a woman become acquainted with each other, whether by some chance opportunity or by special arrangement, they form what is called a “correlative relationship.” If, subsequently, they get married, create a family, and live a life of love, they are engaging in what is called “give and receive action.” The solar system is another example: the sun and the planets have existed in a correlative relationship for 4.6 billion years, giving and receiving through universal gravitation whereby the planets are revolving around the sun, and in this way they maintain the solar system.

In God, there are the identity-maintaining and the developmental aspects. In the identity-maintaining aspect, Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang engage in give and receive action centering on Heart, forming a union or harmony. This is the identity-maintaining aspect of God, the foundation for His eternity and self-existence. Also, Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang engage in give and receive action centering on purpose (i.e., the purpose of creation), engendering multiplied beings, or new beings. This is the developmental aspect of God. The first relationship is described as an “identity-maintaining give and receive action,” and the second one is described as a “developmental give and receive action.”

In a similar fashion, there are identity-maintaining give and receive actions and developmental give and receive actions in the created world, which is created in the image of God. For instance, in our galaxy give and receive action takes place between its nucleus and about 200 billion stars. The shape of our galaxy has the form of a convex lens and is constant, and all the stars perform revolving motions while keeping their own particular orbits. From this perspective, the galaxy has an unchanging aspect. On the other hand, it is said that in the beginning the galaxy revolved slowly, but as time went on, it came to revolve faster and faster. Also, it is well known that old stars die and new stars are born. Thus, the galaxy has the aspect of change as well. Hence, there are aspects of both identity-maintaining give and receive action and developmental give and receive action in the galaxy.

Furthermore, within God’s Sungsang, the correlative elements of the Inner Sungsang and the Inner Hyungsang are in the relationship of subject and object, and they are engaged in give and receive action centering either on Heart or on purpose, whereby they form either a union or produce a new being, respectively. This is called “inner give and receive action.” On the other hand, Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang are also engaged in give and receive action centering either on Heart or on purpose, whereby they form either a union or produce a new being, respectively. This is called “outer give and receive action.”

This two-stage action, namely, inner give and receive action and outer give and receive action, forms the two-stage four position foundation, which is called the “two-stage structure of God.” This two-stage structure as found in God applies also to the created world. Hence, every being internally has correlative elements of subject and object within itself, and at the same time, it is externally related to other beings in a correlative relationship of subject and object. For example, in the relationship between a human being and all things, the human being, through the inner give and receive action, engages in thinking, and then, through the outer give and receive action, cognizes things and exercises dominion over them.

There are five different types of give and receive action, which I will explain next. What distinguishes one type from another is whether or not the subject and/or object possess consciousness. The five types of give and receive action are as follows:

  1. Bi-Conscious Type: In a classroom, a teacher is the subject and the students are the objects, and they engage in a give and receive action wherein both sides are conscious of that action. This is called a give and receive action of the bi-conscious type. The subject and the object both have will and they are both conscious, not only in cases like this, between one human being and another, but also in such cases as those between a human being and an animal, and even between one animal and another. Such relationships as these are of the bi-conscious type.
  2. Uni-Conscious Type: When a teacher writes words on a blackboard with chalk, a give and receive action takes place between the teacher and the chalk. In this case, the teacher acts consciously, whereas the chalk does not. One side alone (the subject) has consciousness while the other side (the object) does not. This is called a give and receive action of the uni-conscious type.
  3. Unconscious Type: Animals inhale the oxygen emitted by plants and exhale carbon dioxide. On the other hand, during the daytime plants absorb the carbon dioxide emitted by animals and release oxygen through photosynthesis. In this instance, animals do not consciously exhale carbon dioxide for the sake of plants, nor do plants consciously release oxygen for the sake of animals. Both sides act unconsciously in this exchanging of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Such a case in which both parties engage in a give and receive action unconsciously, even if one or both parties may have consciousness, is called a give and receive action of the unconscious type.
  4. Heteronomous Type: When neither the subject nor the object possesses consciousness, and both are induced heteronomously by the will of a third party to engage in a give and receive action, the relationship is called a give and receive action of the heteronomous type. For example, the sun and the earth engage, according to natural law, in give and receive action according to God’s purpose of creation, even though they are not conscious of it. This is a give and receive action of the heteronomous type. In another example, the various parts of a watch engage in give and receive action with one another according to the will of the person who made the watch. Such kinds of give and receive actions are of the heteronomous type.
  5. Contrast Type (Collation Type): When we human beings contrast two or more things and therein discover harmony between them, we regard them as engaging in a kind of give and receive action. This is called give and receive action of the contrast type, or collation type. In this relationship, the human observer establishes (consciously or unconsciously) one element as the subject and another as the object, contrasts them, and thus regards them, subjectively, as engaging in give and receive action.

Creation or appreciation of artwork is a typical example of a give and receive action of the contrast type, in which a human subject intentionally contrasts the objective elements. In creating a work of art, the artist adjusts and contrasts colors, shades of light, sounds, and so forth, in order to harmonize these elements. In art appreciation, the appreciator, when contemplating a work of art (a painting, a musical piece, etc.) will also contrast the various elements within the artwork in order to find harmony in them.

Give and receive action of the contrast type can also be found in the process of thinking. For example, the judgment “this flower is a rose” is made by regarding “this flower” as the subject and “a rose” as the object, and then contrasting them. In the process of cognition, contrast takes place between the sense content (such as shapes, colors, and fragrances) coming from the outside world and the prototypes (ideas) within the human subject. In Unification Epistemology, these processes are called “collation,” and are instances of a give and receive action of the contrast type.

Correlatives and Opposites
As stated earlier, in each individual truth being there always exist paired elements of subject and object. These paired elements are called “correlatives.” The correlative elements of subject and object form a correlative relation centering on a purpose and engage in harmonious give and receive action, forming either a union or a multiplied being. In Unification Thought, this is called the “law of give and receive action,” or simply, “give and receive law.” This understanding contrasts with that of the materialist dialectic, which asserts that within every being there exist “opposites,” or “contradictory elements,” and that things can develop only through a struggle between these opposites.

Do things exist and develop through a harmonious give and receive action between correlatives (as Unification Thought asserts), or do they exist and develop through a struggle between opposites (as the materialist dialectic asserts)? It should be noted, first, that Unification Thought and the materialist dialectic agree on one point, and that is that in every being there are always two elements. In actual development, however, the two positions are diametrically different. In order to determine which one is correct, we need only to compare the nature of the two elements in both cases. If there is a common purpose, we can say that the two elements are correlatives; if there is no common purpose between them, we must say that the two elements are opposites. Another way is to examine whether the interaction between the two elements is harmonious or conflictive. If we find the interaction to be harmonious, then it is give and receive action; if, instead, we find it to be conflictive, then it is dialectical action. Also, we can determine which one is correct if we examine the positions of the two elements; in other words, if they are different in position (subject and object) they are correlatives, and if they are equal in position (subject and subject, for example) they are opposites.

Marx asserted that things develop through the dialectic, but he only dealt with social problems, and did not cite a single example that could indicate that natural phenomena develop through the struggle of opposites. Thus, in order to compensate for this weakness in Marx’s thought, Engels studied the natural sciences and compiled his conclusions in the books Dialectics of Nature and Anti-Dühring; thereby, Engels announced that he had reached the conclusion that “nature is the proof of dialectics.” In other words, he asserted that all natural phenomena, without exception, follow the dialectic.

If, however, one carefully examines the natural phenomena cited by Engels, one finds that what is actually occurring in those phenomena are not struggles but rather harmonious actions centered on a common purpose. A more detailed explanation of this point is given in The End of Communism by Sang-Hun Lee, and it is omitted here for lack of space. To conclude, nature can not be said to be the “proof of dialectics”; instead, nature is the “proof of give and receive action.” Struggles do exist, but only among human beings in society; these struggles are a result of the human fall.

C. Mode of Existence

Now, I will explain the manner in which all created beings exist, that is, their mode of existence. The mode of existence of created beings is their motion in time and space. Hence, “mode of existence” is a spatio-temporal concept applicable only in the created world. Since God is the absolute being, God does not literally perform such motion. Therefore, there is no concept of a mode of existence in the Original Image. There is, however, a prototype within the Original Image, which corresponds to the mode of existence in the created world.

1. Circular Motion

When, in the created world, two elements or beings in the relationship of subject and object engage in a give and receive action, centering on a common purpose, then the result is that both union and motion appear simultaneously. Purpose itself is not an existing being, and the union is merely a state that arises as a result of give and receive action; therefore, the actual participants in the motion of give and receive action are the two elements (beings) in the roles of subject and object. The center of the give and receive action lies not in some intermediary position between the subject and the object, but within the subject itself. Accordingly, the motion of this give and receive action can not but become a subject-centered circular motion. This circular motion is illustrated in fig. 2.5. In an atom, for instance, electrons revolve around the nucleus; and, likewise, in the solar system, planets revolve around the sun.

What, then, is the reason why created beings necessarily engage in circular motion? In the world of God there exists no time or space and, therefore, no motion. However, even though in God there is no actual mode of existence, or circular motion, still there must exist in the Original Image some prototype of the circular motion that exists in the created world. This prototype is the round, harmonious and smooth nature of the give and receive action between Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang. In the Original Image, Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang perform harmonious give and receive action centering either on Heart or on purpose. When the round and harmonious nature of the give and receive action in God is expressed (symbolically) in terms of time and space, it becomes circular motion.

The world of created beings is the symbolic expression of God. For instance, the vastness of the ocean symbolizes the vastness of God’s mind; the heat of the sun symbolizes the warmth of God’s love, and the light of the sun symbolizes the brightness of God’s truth. Likewise, circular motion in the created world symbolizes something in God, namely, the round and harmonious nature of the give and receive action within God. Harmonious give and receive action is the expression of love centered on Heart. In other words, circular motion symbolizes the roundness and, at the same time, the love in God. Love has no corners or angles, and is expressed in a circular form. Thus, if we were to express the Original Image in a diagram, such a diagram would be of a circular, or spherical, form.

God is formless and has no definite appearance; yet, God has the potentiality to appear in any form. In other words, God, who is formless, has a limitless number of forms. Compare this to the phenomenon of water. If placed in a rectangular container, water takes a rectangular shape; if placed in a triangular container, water takes a triangular shape; and if placed in a round container, it takes a round shape. In other words, water can take on any form, depending on its container. Therefore, it has a limitless number of forms. Of all these forms, however, the one most typical of water is the spherical form. We can know this from the fact that when a drop of water falls, it assumes a spherical form.

Similarly, God can manifest Himself in the form of waves, in the form of wind, in the form of fire, and so forth, but if we were to choose a typical form of God, it would be a spherical form. In this sense, the Original Image can be expressed in a circular or a spherical form. This is why all things, in resemblance to the Original Image, basically have a spherical form. Atoms, the earth, the moon, the sun, stars, and so on, all have a spherical form. Even plants and animals can be said to have a spherical form since the starting point of the growth of a plant is a seed, and the starting point of the growth of an animal is an egg. These have an essentially spherical form. As explained above, circular motion in all things originates from the roundness of the give and receive action in the Original Image. At the same time, it originates from the representative circular or spherical shape of the Original Image.

There is yet another reason why the motion performed when a subject and an object engage in give and receive action is circular. Circular motion is a necessary representation of the give and receive action. If the object did not revolve around the subject, but instead moved in a straight line, then the object would ultimately depart from the subject. If that were to occur, subject and object would become unable to perform give and receive action, and if they could not perform give and receive action, the created being could not exist, for it is through such give and receive action that the forces for existence, multiplication, and action come into being. Accordingly, in order for subject and object to engage in give and receive action, the object must maintain a continuous relationship with the subject―and in order for that to happen, the object must go around the subject.

2. Rotation and Revolution

Next, let me explain rotation and revolution. Any individual being engaged in circular motion is simultaneously performing two kinds of motion, namely, rotation and revolution. The reason for this is that every individual being is simultaneously both an individual truth being and a connected being. This is so because each individual being engages in internal give and receive action as well as external give and receive action. As a result of these two kinds of give and receive action, two kinds of circular motion come into being. The circular motion produced through the internal give and receive action is rotation, and the circular motion produced through the external give and receive action is revolution. For example, the earth revolves around the sun while rotating itself; an electron revolves around the atomic nucleus while rotating itself. Rotation and revolution, then, are the results of the internal and external motions of things, and the reason these two types of motion exist is that they resemble the round and harmonious nature of the inner give and receive action and the outer give and receive action within the Original Image.

Through these inner and outer give and receive actions, inner and outer four position foundations are formed centering on purpose (unlike in the Original Image, where the center can be Heart, in created beings the center is always purpose, in any kind of four position foundation). In the formation of the inner and outer four position foundations, the result is either a union or a new being. Here, let us examine the case in which the result is a union.

In the Original Image, when the result is a union, an inner identity-maintaining four position foundation and an outer identity-maintaining four position foundation are formed through the inner give and receive action and the outer give and receive action, respectively. That is the “two-stage structure of the Original Image.” In resemblance to this structure, every created being forms an inner identity-maintaining four position foundation and an outer identity-maintaining four position foundation, which together constitute the “two-stage structure of existence.” Give and receive action takes place on the basis of the four position foundation, and when give and receive action takes place, circular motion always appears. Accordingly, in the formation of inner and outer four position foundations, inner and outer give and receive actions take place and, at the same time, inner and outer circular motions take place. The inner circular motion is rotation, and the outer circular motion is revolution.

3. Forms of Circular Motion

In actuality, spatial circular motion can be seen, in the created world, only in astronomical bodies such as stars and planets and in elementary particles and atoms. In other cases, we do not see literal circular motion. Plants, for example, are fixed in certain positions, and animals, though they are moving, are not performing circular motion. In these cases, although the basic mode of their existence is circular motion, it has been modified to take other forms. The reason the circular motion is modified is because each created being must achieve its particular purpose of creation, that is, its purpose for the whole and its purpose for the individual. There are three categories of circular motion: basic circular motion, transformed circular motion, and spiritual circular motion.

a) Basic Circular Motion

There are two types of basic circular motion, namely, “circular motion in space” and “circular motion in time.”

i) Circular Motion in Space
Spatial circular motion is physical, repetitive circular motion, and examples are the rotation and revolution of celestial bodies and elementary particles. These are the spatial representation of the identity-maintaining give and receive action within the Original Image. They are circular motion in the literal sense, and since they nearly always maintain the same orbit, this can be called “repetitive motion.”

ii) Circular Motion in Time (Spiral Motion)
The repetition of life cycles, or the succession of generations of living beings, can also be regarded as a kind of circular motion, that is, a spiral motion. Let us consider the growth of plants. A seed puts forth a new sprout, which grows into a plant; the plant blooms, bears fruits, and produces numerous new seeds. The new seeds, greater in number than the initial one, again sprout, grow, and bear new fruits. A similar process occurs in the development of animals. A fertilized egg grows; the young are born; the young grow to maturity, engage in reproduction, and again new fertilized eggs are made. The new fertilized eggs, greater in number than the initial one, again grow; the young are born; the young grow to maturity and engage in reproduction. Thus, both plants and animals preserve their species by repeating life cycles, or life histories.

This succession of generations, intended for the preservation of the species, is a kind of circular motion, having the following characteristic features: (1) it possesses purposefulness, (2) it develops through time, and (3) it has the nature of proceeding in distinct stages. This is called a “spiral motion,” and it is illustrated in fig. 2.6.

Let us consider now the significance of the fact that living beings make spiral motion, that is, the preservation and multiplication of their species. All things are the objects of joy and at the same time the objects of dominion for human beings. Thus, the preservation and multiplication of species in living beings corresponds to the succession of generations and the multiplication of human beings.

The physical self of the human being is not an eternal being. Only the spirit self, which matures on the basis of the physical self, lives eternally. When the spirit self becomes perfected, the physical self dies, and the mature spirit self goes on to live eternally in the spirit world. (Yet, because of the human fall people went to the spirit world with their spirit selves still unperfected.) The perfection of the spirit self is the realization of the purpose of creation, which means that human beings grow, perfect their individuality, get married, multiply, and have dominion over all things―in other words, they fulfill the three great blessings (Gen.1:28). Thus, human beings are created to live during a certain period of time on earth and they maintain their species through a succession of generations. Also, all living beings, which exist as objects to human beings, preserve their species through a succession of generations, and multiply in order to continue as the objects of dominion for human beings on earth. Such circular motion in time is the temporal manifestation of the developmental give and receive action within the Original Image.

b) Transformed Circular Motion

There are two kinds of transformed circular motion, namely, motion with a fixed nature, and motion with an alternative nature.

i) Motion with a Fixed Nature
This refers to the situation wherein the circular motion is fixed in place in order for an existing being to achieve its specific purpose of creation. For example, a stationary radio satellite is fixed at a certain position in space for the sake of achieving its purpose. In the case of the earth where humans live, if the immeasurable atoms forming the earth were to move about randomly, then the earth would take on a more gaseous state, and humans would not be able to live on it. If the earth is to be a dwelling place for humans, the atoms that constitute it must be fixed firmly in place, united with each other in order to form solid ground. Therefore, the atoms forming the earth perform transformed circular motion (rigid chemical bonding), maintaining their fixed positions in order to form an appropriate dwelling place for human beings, in other words, to realize their purpose for the whole.

Similarly, the cells forming the tissues of living beings are positioned and fixed unitedly with respect to one another. For example, the cells forming the heart of an animal are fixed in place and united with one another, which enables the heart to contract and expand in performing its function. If the heart cells were to move about independently, the heart would not be able to perform its proper function.

ii) Motion with an Alternative Nature
In animals, instead of the cells performing circular motion, the blood and lymph circulate throughout the body, connecting the cells, thereby bringing the same result as if the cells themselves were performing circular motion. In plants, also, water and minerals are absorbed by the roots and circulate throughout the body of the plant through the vessels and tracheids of the xylem. The nutrients which have been manufactured in the leaves travel through the sieve tubes of the phloem, connecting all cells. The overall result of this is the same as if the cells themselves were making circular motion. In this way, blood and lymph, water and nutrients circulate, in place of the circular motion of cells. This is called circular motion with an alternative nature, or simply, motion with an alternative nature.

In the earth, also, there are the convective currents in the mantle, the movement of the plates (called plate tectonics), and so on, which manifest the effects of circular motion. They are also regarded as motion with an alternative nature. The circulation of goods and money in the economy are also examples of motion with an alternative nature.

c) Spiritual Circular Motion (Sungsang Circular Motion)

The give and receive action between the spirit mind and the physical mind in human beings is not a physical kind of circular motion, but rather a spiritual kind of circular motion in the sense that the physical mind responds to the desires of the spirit mind. Accordingly, this is spiritual circular motion, or circular motion on the Sungsang level. Also, in the sense that the object behaves as the subject desires, the harmonious give and receive action between one person and another in a family or in society is circular motion on the Sungsang level, or spiritual circular motion. For example, when parents love their children and instruct them well, the children obey their parents well. This, too, comes in the category of spiritual circular motion.

4. Growth and Developmental Motion

Development from the Viewpoint of Unification Thought
Now I will explain the concepts of growth and development in order to clarify the Unification view of development. Living beings are endowed with life. Life refers to the autonomy and dominion of the principle, or the conscious energy (in other words, the consciousness with energy) latent within living beings. The growth of living beings is guided by this life, the autonomy and dominion of the principle, which is the unity of consciousness and energy latent in living beings; thus, this motion of conscious energy is none other than the motion of life.

Autonomy is the ability to direct one’s own motion without any influence from other beings. The earth revolves around the sun, but it does so by following natural law in a merely mechanical manner. Living things, however, do not just follow laws mechanically. They are able to control themselves as they grow, while coping with various kinds of situations in their environment. This is the meaning of “autonomy of the principle.” On the other hand, “dominion of the principle” refers to the function or ability of exerting an influence on an existing being’s surroundings. For example, when the seed of a plant is sown, a sprout emerges, a trunk grows, and leaves come out. This force of growing is the action of the autonomy of the principle. At the same time, plants have an influence on their surroundings; they provide animals with oxygen, and attract bees and butterflies by blooming. This aspect is the dominion of the principle. Life, then, when viewed from the aspect of growth, is autonomy, and when viewed from the aspect of influencing its surroundings, is dominion.

The growth of living beings, due to the life inherent within them, is developmental motion. All created beings are endowed with the purpose of creation (the purpose of being created). To say that living beings are endowed with the purpose of creation means that the life force within living beings is conscious of that purpose. Accordingly, the growth of a living being is a movement aiming towards a goal (purpose) from the very beginning.

Development thus has a definite purpose, and a direction determined by its inner life force. That is to say, there is life within the seed of a plant, and it is this life which causes the seed to grow (develop) toward the goal of becoming a tree bearing fruits. Also, there is life within the fertilized egg of an animal, and it is this life which causes the egg to grow (develop) toward the goal of becoming an adult animal.

Let us now consider the particular case of the development of the universe as a whole. According to the Big Bang theory, about fifteen billion years ago the universe started out as a mass of energy, of extremely high temperature and density, all concentrated in one point. A “great” explosion took place, and the universe began to expand. After the initial explosion, the hot, swirling gases eventually cooled and condensed to form the many galaxies. In each galaxy, numerous stars came into being, some of which were surrounded by planets. One of the stars with planets was the sun, and one of its planets was the earth. Life came into being on the earth, and finally human beings appeared.

This is the essence of today’s scientific view of the development of the universe. Considering this, we may ask if the development of the universe is much different from the growth (development) of living beings? And, if it is different, then how is it different? Is it simply development based on physicochemical laws? Or, is it a development of life, in the same way as living beings?

If, when considering the development of the entire universe, we look at that process over a comparatively short period of time, we may only be able to discern physicochemical laws at work. If, however, we look at that process over a much longer period of time―say, several billion years―we would be able to discern that the universe, while certainly following physicochemical laws, has yet been developing in a definite direction. This tells us that there has been a goal in the development of the universe. That goal is the appearance of human beings, who are intended to have dominion over the universe. In other words, the universe has been developing, seemingly in the expectation of the appearance of human beings. What has given this kind of direction to the development of the universe is the consciousness latent within the universe. This can be called “cosmic consciousness,” or “cosmic life.”

Just as in the development of a plant there is at first a seed which sprouts, grows and finally bears fruit, so too, in the development of the universe we can consider it to be the case that, in the beginning, the universe began as a seed, which has been growing until today. The human being is the ultimate fruit of the universe. Accordingly, just as bearing fruit is the goal of a plant, so also the human being was the goal of the development of the universe. It was stated earlier that growth is a phenomenon that exists only in living things, but seen from the perspective of so vast a period of time as fifteen billion years, one can realize that the entire universe has, in fact, been growing.

Communist Perspective on Development
Next, let us examine the Communist perspective on development. Development is an irreversible, purposeful movement that proceeds toward a definite goal. Yet, Communists never described development as a motion proceeding toward a goal. Communists maintain that development takes place through the contradiction inherent within a thing, and it only admits to lawfulness and necessity, denying any sense of purpose. Why do they deny purpose (or goal)? The reason is that only will or reason can establish a purpose; and if there were reason that established purpose at the beginning of the universe, that could be none other than the reason of God. From this it follows that God has established the purpose of the universe. If God were accepted, atheistic Communism would inevitably fall, which is why Communists never admitted purpose.

In contrast, Unification Thought, in addition to describing development in terms of necessity and lawfulness, asserts that there is purpose in development. This is because the motive force of development is life, and life is purposive and conscious energy. Necessity and lawfulness in development are all for the sake of the realization of this purpose. In other words, all created beings are endowed with necessity and lawful-ness so that they realize their purpose, that is, the purpose of creation.

As stated in the Theory of the Original Image, within God’s Sungsang, centering on purpose, the Inner Sungsang (reason) and the Inner Hyung-sang (law) are engaged in give and receive action whereby Logos is formed. Logos is the union of reason and law. Law already existed within God’s Inner Hyungsang, prior to His creation of the universe, and it existed for the realization of the purpose of creation. In other words, law had been prepared, from the very beginning, for the realization of purpose.

Communist materialism denies purposefulness in the development of the universe. This view implies that human beings are purposeless, born through the necessity of law. If this were the case, humans become accidental beings, without purpose. For such humans, there is no place for values or morality. A world without values or morality can not but become a world where the strong prey upon the weak and only the strong can survive.

Communist Perspective on Motion
Communists comprehend matter as “matter in motion.” Friedrich Engels (1820-95) said, “motion is the mode of existence of matter. Never anywhere has there been matter without motion, nor can there be…. Matter without motion is just as inconceivable as motion without matter.” For what purpose do Communists assert that motion is the mode of existence of matter? Their purpose is to deny the existence of God. Newton considered the universe as essentially an enormous machine and recognized God as the Being who had made the machine and had caused it to start moving. From that perspective, if we think of matter and motion as separate realities, then we must concede that motion must have derived from something other than matter itself―ultimately, by some being like God. Thus, in order to prevent such a metaphysical interpretation of motion, Communists defined motion as the mode of existence originally inherent in matter.

From the Unification Thought viewpoint, things exist and move through give and receive action between subject and object. Accordingly, motion is the mode of existence of all things. However, motion is not the mode of existence of an individual being itself, but rather it is a phenomenon that appears when subject and object engage in give and receive action. Give and receive action between subject and object is an action intended for the realization of the purpose of creation. Ultimately, then, motion exists for the realization of the purpose of creation. For example, the earth engages in give and receive actions internally and externally in order to realize its purpose of creation―that is, to provide the environment for human beings to live in―and therefore engages in rotation and revolution.

Communists assert that motion is the mode of existence of matter, but they say nothing at all about the reason why matter has such a mode of existence or about the kinds of motion it performs. Communists merely want to assert that things move through the struggle of opposites.

D. Position of Existence

Every individual being has its own place for existence. The place that a being possesses is called its “position of existence” in Unification Thought. When two individuals engage in a subject and object (namely, give and receive) relationship, there is a difference between the position of the subject and the position of the object.

Position of Existence Seen from the Viewpoint of a Connected Being
A being exists as an individual truth being and, at the same time, as a connected being. As a connected being, a being is simultaneously both in the position of object and in the position of subject. As a result, numerous beings become connected upwards and downwards, in front and back, and to the right and left, forming a system of positions, namely an orderly system. Such a system of positions of subject and object is simply a reflection of the positions of subject and object in the Original Image, which are projected into the three-dimensional spatial world.

There are numerous stars in the universe which, as connected beings, engage in give and receive actions from their different respective positions, all forming an orderly system. Such order in the universe comes about through the accumulation of the two-stage structures of existence, all of which are modeled after the two-stage structure of the Original Image. As connected beings, which are beings with dual purposes, all the beings in the universe are related to each other. Hence, the universe is a giant organic body. Human beings exist in the highest position of the organic orderly system, and God exists above human beings.

Position of Existence Seen from the Viewpoint of a Connected Being
A being exists as an individual truth being and, at the same time, as a connected being. As a connected being, a being is simultaneously both in the position of object and in the position of subject. As a result, numerous beings become connected upwards and downwards, in front and back, and to the right and left, forming a system of positions, namely an orderly system. Such a system of positions of subject and object is simply a reflection of the positions of subject and object in the Original Image, which are projected into the three-dimensional spatial world.

There are numerous stars in the universe which, as connected beings, engage in give and receive actions from their different respective positions, all forming an orderly system. Such order in the universe comes about through the accumulation of the two-stage structures of existence, all of which are modeled after the two-stage structure of the Original Image. As connected beings, which are beings with dual purposes, all the beings in the universe are related to each other. Hence, the universe is a giant organic body. Human beings exist in the highest position of the organic orderly system, and God exists above human beings.

Vertical Order and Horizontal Order
The order of the universe is of two kinds, namely, vertical and horizontal. An example of the vertical order of the universe is as follows. The moon (a satellite) and the earth (a planet) engage in give and receive action, with the earth as the subject and the moon as the object. The earth, in turn, engages in give and receive action with the sun (a star), forming a part of the solar system. Here the earth is the object and the sun is the subject. Next, the sun engages in give and receive action with the galactic center and, together with many other stars, forms the galaxy. Here the sun is the object, and the galactic center is the subject. Furthermore, the galaxy, in unity with many other galaxies, engages in give and receive action with the center of the universe, forming the universe. In this case, the galaxy is the object, and the center of the universe is the subject. This thread of connection―running from satellite to planet, to star, and to galactic center, all the way to the center of the universe―makes up the vertical order of the universe.

We can also consider the horizontal order of the universe. If we look at the nine planets of the solar system, we can see that they form an orderly, horizontal arrangement of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. This planetary system, centering on the sun, is an example of horizontal order in the universe. Also, this kind of horizontal order can be seen in other fixed stars which have planets. The vertical order and the horizontal order of the universe are illustrated in fig. 2.7.

Order in the Universe and Order in the Family
A human family, in its original form, should also have had an orderly system like that of the universe. In a family there is vertical order, which consists of grandchildren, children, parents, grandparents, great grandparents, and so on; and there is horizontal order, which consists of brothers and sisters centered on the parents. The vertical order and the horizontal order of a family are illustrated in fig. 2.8.

From the perspective of composition the human being is a microcosm, or a miniature of the universe. Considered from the aspect of order, the family is a miniature of the universe, and the universe is an expanded image of the family. It is well known that in a galaxy there are innumerable planetary systems similar to the solar system, and that in the universe there are innumerable galaxies. Therefore, we can assert that the universe is an ordered assemblage of innumerable families of heavenly bodies.

In the universe, perfect order is maintained through harmonious give and receive action. In the solar system, the nine planets are engaged in give and receive action with the sun and, centering on the sun, they maintain a collective disc shape while moving along their specific individual orbits around the sun. In the Milky Way galaxy, approximately 200 billion stars are engaged in give and receive action with the galactic center, and they maintain, as a whole, the shape of a convex lens while remaining in their respective established orbits. In the universe, upwards of 200 billion galaxies are engaged in give and receive action with the center of the universe, and they maintain the harmony in the universe as a whole while yet remaining in their respective established orbits.

This order of the universe is reflected in the family. In the universe, order and peace are maintained through harmonious give and receive action (the Way of Heaven) among all heavenly bodies. Similarly, in a family order and peace are to be maintained according to the law of harmonious give and receive action, that is, the principle of love, among the family members. The principle of love is ethics, the norm of the family, which corresponds to the Way of Heaven. Due to the human fall, however, the family has lost its original state of existence. Thus, family ethics has collapsed, and family members have become disunited. Society, which is an extension of the family, has also become extremely disorderly.

E. Law of the Universe

The law that governs the universe is called the Way of Heaven. This law refers to the harmonious give and receive action between subject and object. This universal law of give and receive action has the following seven characteristics, or seven principles:

  1. Correlativity: Every being not only has correlative elements of subject and object within itself, but also externally forms correlative relationships of subject and object with other beings. Without such correlativity, no being can exist or develop.
  2. Purposefulness and Centrality: The correlative elements of subject and object always possess a common purpose and perform give and receive action centering on that purpose.
  3. Order and Position: Every being has its own existing position whereby it maintains a certain order.
  4. Harmony: The give and receive action between subject and object is spherical and harmonious, without any opposition or struggle in the relationship, for God’s love is always at work there.
  5. ndividuality and Connectedness: Every being is an individual truth being and, at the same time, exists as a connected being. Each being, while maintaining its own inherent characteristics (individuality), has certain relationships with other beings and interacts with them.
  6. An Identity-Maintaining Nature and a Developmental Nature: Every being maintainedi its own unchangeable essence (identity-maintaining nature) throughout its life, and, at the same time, has aspects that change and develop (developmental nature) as it grows and develops.
  7. Circular Motion: In the give and receive action between subject and object, the object revolves around the subject and performs circular motion in time and space.

It can be said that the law of the universe is the work of Logos. Logos is law, but at the same time it contains reason, based on Heart. Thus, behind Logos there is love at work. In other words, when God created the universe through Logos, the motivation of its creation was Heart and love. Therefore, Rev. Sun Myung Moon has stated that in the universe there is not only physical force, but also the power of love.

Applied to the human individual, the law of the universe manifests itself as morality, and applied to the family, it manifests itself as ethics. Hence, the law of the universe, and moral and ethical laws are in a relationship of correspondence. A society is the extension of a family. Accordingly, social ethics is to be established, in correspondence to the Way of Heaven.

When an individual being violates the law of the universe, that being becomes unable to maintain its own existence. Indeed, if one of the planets of the solar system were to deviate from its orbit, not only would that planet be unable to maintain its own existence, but great calamities in the solar system would also ensue. Likewise in a family and in a society, if people violate ethical laws, that can only give rise to destruction and disorder. Accordingly, in order to help a confused society, the most urgent task, which should be pursued before anything else, is to re-establish ethical laws.

Yet, moral and ethical theories based on traditional religions and thought systems do not have sufficiently developed logical explanations, and because of that they are not persuasive for present-day analytical and rational people. This is why these laws are all but neglected today. In contrast, in Unification Thought we provide a sound logical basis, so that moral and ethical laws may be strengthened with the understanding that they (moral and ethical laws) correspond to the law of the universe.

Thus, Unification Thought is able to provide a firm foundation for the practice of morality and ethics. This point will be explained in further detail in the chapters on “Axiology” and “Ethics.”

My final point in this chapter will be an analysis, from the viewpoint of Unification Thought, of the views of Communism concerning the law of the universe. Communism is based on a dialectical view of the universe; therefore, it asserts that phenomena of motion, change, and development in the universe take place through the contradiction, or the struggle of opposites, inherent in all things. Communism also claims that in order for human society to develop, struggle (i.e., class struggle) is necessary. On this matter, Lenin wrote, “The unity (coincidence, identity, equal action) of opposites is conditional, temporary, transitory, relative. The struggle of mutually exclusive opposites is absolute, just as development and motion are absolute.” Lenin went so far as to definitively affirm that “Development is the ‘struggle’ of opposites.”

Communism asserts that things develop through the struggle of opposites but, in reality, we can not find such phenomena anywhere in the universe. It is only through harmony that the universe has been developing. If one observes the universe, one may find certain phenomena, such as the explosion of a star, which appear destructive. However, this is not a destructive phenomenon of the universe as a whole, but only a limited destructive phenomenon. These phenomena are not different from what happens to a living being. When the cells of a living being become old, they are replaced by new ones. Likewise, when stars become old, they disappear, and new ones are born.

At this point, someone might argue that in the animal kingdom, where the stronger prey upon the weaker, the theory of the struggle of opposites holds true. For example, snakes eat frogs, and cats eat mice. Communism attempts to justify the theory of struggle in human society on the basis of such observations of nature as these. It should be noted, however, that the struggles between snakes and frogs, or between cats and mice, are struggles between animals of different species.

In taxonomy, living beings are divided into the categories of kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. In the case of cats and mice, cats are in the order Carnivora, and mice are in the order Rodentia. Cats and mice are different from each other on the level of order. In the case of snakes and frogs, snakes are in the class Reptilia, and frogs are in the class Amphibia. Snakes and frogs are different from each other on the class level. In other words, when one animal preys upon another, the preying animal is usually different from its prey at least on the level of species. In nature, we do not see animals belonging to the same species fighting to the death. A cat does eat mice, but it does not eat other cats. A snake does eat frogs, but it does not eat other snakes of the same species.

In marked contrast, human beings, who all belong to the same species (namely, Homo sapiens), plunder from one another and kill one another. Therefore, the fact that human beings struggle with one another can not be justified on the basis of the natural phenomenon that the stronger prey upon the weaker.

As an illustration, consider the case of struggle among lions. When a new lion is placed into a pride of lions, a struggle takes place between the new lion and the leader of the pride. This kind of struggle is intended to determine which lion should be the leader―in other words, it is intended to establish order. Once a new leader is determined, the weaker lion surrenders to the stronger one and the fight is over. Such a fight is essentially different from the struggles in which human beings kill each other. Thus, we can not find any phenomenon which justifies struggles in human society.

It is only because humankind fell away from God, and became self-centered, that human beings came to plunder from, and kill, one another. Accordingly, if humankind returns to its original state, such struggles will no longer be seen in human society. Furthermore, if humankind had not fallen, people would have become the rulers of all things, and would have exercised dominion over nature through love.

Thus, we come to the conclusion that, in the development of the natural world the law of contradiction, or the law of the struggle of opposites, is never at work, but rather there is the law of the harmonious give and receive action between correlatives (subject and object).