II. Structure of the Original Image

I will from this point discuss the structure of the Original Image. In the section“Content of the Original Image,” each attribute of the Divine Image and the Divine Character was explained, while in this section, the relationships between the dual characteristics of the Original Image―mainly the relationship between Sungsang and Hyungsang―will be explained. The purpose of such an explanation is to set forth the standards necessary for solving, fundamentally, various actual problems, in this case, problems of relationships.

A. Give and Receive Action and Four Position Foundation

1. Give and Receive Action between Sungsang and Hyungsang

In the Principle of Creation of the Divine Principle, it is written that “All beings exist through the reciprocal relationships between their dual characteristics of internal nature and external form” (DP, 17). Furthermore, “[every living being] maintains its life through the reciprocal relationship of yang and yin elements within itself” (DP, 16). The reason for this is that, since God, the First Cause of all things, is the harmonious Subject of the dual characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang, and of Yang and Yin (DP, 19), all things were created according to the law of likeness and, without exception, resemble the dual characteristics of God. A reciprocal relationship means a relationship of two elements or two individuals that are facing each other. For example, when two persons seek to engage in conversation or to engage in buying and selling, the situation wherein the two partners are facing each other first needs to be established before a conversation or trade takes place. The reciprocal relationship should necessarily be a mutually affirming relationship, and never a mutually negating one.

When such a reciprocal relationship is established, something is given and received between the two partners. In human beings, people are giving and receiving words, money, power, influence, love, and so on. In the natural world, universal gravitation acts among heavenly bodies, carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged between animals and plants, and so on. The action of giving and receiving something between the two partners is called “give and receive action.”

The establishment of a reciprocal relationship does not necessarily mean that a give and receive action will take place. In order for a give and receive action to take place, a “common base” must be established. This common base is a reciprocal relationship established centering on a common element, or a common purpose. Thus, correctly speaking, once two parties are engaged in a reciprocal relationship and a common base is formed, give and receive action will take place.

In God as well, give and receive action takes place between Sungsang and Hyungsang according to this principle. Sungsang and Hyungsang are engaged in a reciprocal relationship centering on a common element (Heart or purpose), and so a common base is formed, and a give and receive action does take place. Sungsang gives to Hyungsang ideas, emotional elements, and so on; and Hyungsang gives to Sungsang an energetic element (pre-energy). Through this give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang, the attributes of God either form a harmony (union), or give rise to creation (new beings).

What Is the Give and Receive Action Between
Sungsang and Hyungsang? In the Original Image, when Sungsang and Hyungsang enter into a reciprocal relationship, give and receive action does take place. As mentioned above, however, a common base has to be formed centering on a common element. In God, the common element is Heart, or the purpose of creation, which is established by Heart. When give and receive action takes place, a result necessarily appears. Thus, a center and a result necessarily accompany a give and receive action. When Heart is the center, a union is realized as a result, and when purpose is the center, a new being or a multiplied being appears as a result. Union here refers to a unified state, whereas a new being refers to a created being. Accordingly, in the Original Image the appearance of new beings means the creation of all things.

Concepts of Union and New Being
Here, I will discuss the concepts of union, and of new being in the created world. In the created world, union connotes existence, survival, duration, unity, a spatial circular movement, maintenance, and so on, whereas new being refers to a newly born result or product, a new character, a new element, a new individual, or a new phenomenon. In other words, the appearance of a new being is a phenomenon of development in the created world.

The reason that all things maintain their existence, survival, and duration, and at the same time move and develop is that give and receive actions similar to those in the Original Image (between Sungsang and Hyungsang) are carried out among the myriads of individuals from heavenly bodies to atoms. In accordance with the law of resemblance, the natures of all things resemble the attributes of God, and the relationships and interactions among all things resemble the structure of the Original Image, namely, the relationship and give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang. In other words, all created beings should necessarily resemble the give and receive action within the Original Image in order for them to exist, live, move, and develop.

Round, Harmonious and Smooth Nature of the Give and Receive Action
Whether it is centered on Heart or purpose, give and receive action in the Original Image is round, harmonious and smooth. Heart is the emotional impulse to seek joy through love, and Heart is the source of love. It is love that makes the give and receive action harmonious. Therefore, the give and receive action centered on Heart, from which love wells up, is harmonious. The same thing can be said when the give and receive action is centered on purpose, because purpose itself is established based on Heart.

There is no contradiction, opposition, or conflict in the round, harmonious, and smooth give and receive action within the Original Image. If there is no center or common element such as Heart or purpose, and there is no love, then contradiction, opposition, or conflict can appear. In other words, if the give and receive action is not centered on love, it may not be harmonious, but rather it easily becomes conflictive.

This round, harmonious nature of the give and receive action in the Original Image becomes another standard for solving actual problems. The great confusion of today’s world has been brought about by the fact that most, if not all, relationships have a conflictual tendency. In other words, struggles have been developing in virtually all relationships, such as those between nations, those between ideologies, those between the Communist camp and the free camp, those between peoples, those between religions, those between political parties, those between managers and laborers, those between teacher and student, those between parents and children, those between husband and wife, those between persons, and so on. The result of the accumulation of such numerous conflicting relationships is the great confusion in today’s world. Consequently, the way to remove such worldwide confusion is to transform all conflicts into round and harmonious relationships. This becomes possible once these relationships are established through the give and receive actions centered on God’s love. Thus, the round, harmonious, and smooth nature of the give and receive action in the Original Image becomes another standard for solving actual problems.

2. Subject and Object, and the Four Position Foundation

What Is the Four Position Foundation?
As already explained, give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang is carried out centering on Heart or purpose, giving rise to union or to a new being. Hence, these four elements, the center, Sungsang, Hyungsang, and the result, always participate in a give and receive action.22 The relationship of these four elements is the relationship of positions. The center, Sungsang, Hyungsang and the result, each occupy a position and, at the same time, they are related to each another. The foundation of these four positions, whereupon give and receive action takes place, is called a “four-position foundation.” Whether in the Original Image or in the created world, no matter what type of give and receive action it may be, without exception give and receive action takes place within the context of a four-position foundation. Hence, the four position foundation is the fundamental foundation upon which all things and human beings exist. Give and receive action and the four position foundation in the Original Image is illustrated in fig. 1.4.

When Sungsang and Hyungsang are engaged in give and receive action, they are not in the same position. Position here refers to the position with the qualification to rule all things (DP, 78). In other words, position is related to the degree of activity: When we say that Sungsang and Hyungsang are different in position, it means that Sungsang is in a more active position than Hyungsang, or Hyungsang is in a more passive position than Sungsang. An element or an individual that is in a more active position is called “subject,” and an element or an individual that is in a more passive position is called “object.” Accordingly, when Sungsang and Hyungsang are engaged in give and receive action, Sungsang is subject, and Hyungsang is object.

The four-position foundation consists of the four positions of center, subject, object, and result, and give and receive action always takes place based on the four-position foundation. This means that the structure of the four positions of center, subject, object, and result is fixed and unchanging, whereas the actual element to be established in each position is different for each four-position foundation.

For example, in the family four-position foundation, the purpose (or the motto) of a family, or the grandparents who represent it, is in the center, the father is in the subject position, the mother is in the object position, and the peaceful environment of the family, or the multiplication of children is the result. In a four-position foundation of dominion, such as in business activity, the goal or the ideal of an enterprise is in the center, various personnel (managers and employees) are in the subject position, material elements (machines and raw materials) are in the object position, and products (commodities) are the result. In the solar system, the center is the purpose of creation, the sun is in the subject position, the planets are in the object position, and the result is the existence of the solar system. In a human being, the center is the purpose of creation, mind is the subject, body is the object, and the result is an individual (union of mind and body). Thus, in the four-position foundation, the elements or beings to be established (which may be called the “settled beings”) are different depending on each four-position foundation, but the structure, which consists of center, subject, object, and the result, are always fixed and unchanging.

Concept of Subject and Object
Let me discuss the concept of subject and object more concretely. By doing so the character of give and receive action may be understood more concretely. As already explained, the subject is “active” in relation to the object, whereas the object is “passive” in relation to the subject. To explain in more detail, the relationship between a subject and an object is characterized as “central” and “dependent,” “dynamic” and “static,” “initiating” and “responding,” “creative” and “conservative,” “outgoing” and “modest” as well as “active” and “passive.”

In the created world, from the heavenly bodies to atoms, there are various kinds of subject and object relationships. For example, the relationship between the sun and planets in the solar system, and the relationship between the nucleus and electrons in an atom are the relationship of central and dependent; the relationship between parent animals and their young, and that between a protector and the protected are relationships of dynamic and static; the relationship between an educator and the educated, and that between the giver and the receiver are relationships of initiating and responding, or activity and passivity. In a family, in many cases, the husband works hard to support his family and the wife keeps the house with affectionate care: the relationship between them is rather creative and conservative, or outgoing and modest.

It should be noted here that the concept of subject and that of object are not fixed, but relative, concepts. A subject being becomes an object being when it relates to a higher level being, and an object being becomes a subject being when it relates to a lower level being.

Subject and Object Occupy Different Positions
As explained above, the subject is central, dynamic, initiating, creative, active, and outgoing in relation to the object, whereas the object is dependent, static, responding, conservative, passive, and modest in relation to the subject. The cause of this difference between subject and object lies in the subject-object relationship within the Original Image.

Give and receive action takes place only between subject and object. That is to say, give and receive action takes place when there is a difference in position. When two elements occupy the same position, give and receive action does not take place, but rather a repulsion will appear between them. For example, repulsion appears between two positive charges.

When there is a difference in position between subject and object, a certain order is established. Thus, give and receive action takes place where there is order. This theory of subject and object becomes another standard for solving actual problems. As mentioned above, the world today is experiencing increasing chaos, which is very difficult to control. The reason for such increasing chaos is that most relationships are not based on harmonious give and receive action, so they have instead become conflicting relationships. In other words, the relationships are not those of subject and object, but rather, they have become those repulsive relationships of subject and subject.

The best way of solving our social chaos is to re-establish order. In order to establish order, conflictual relationships between subject and subject should be changed into harmonious relationships. Thus, it is necessary to explain the concept of subject and object, and the standard for the relationship between subject and object should be clarified. The theory of the four-position foundation in the Original Image, or the theory of give and receive action between subject and object can meet this demand. Thus, the theory of subject and object in the Original Image becomes a standard for solving actual problems.

Correlatives and Opposites
I will now discuss the concepts of correlatives and opposites in relation to subject and object. The original relationship between subject and object centered on purpose is harmonious and never conflicting. When two elements or two individuals are engaged in a harmonious relationship, these two elements or individuals are called “correlatives” in Unification Thought. This differs from Marxist Thought, where two elements or individuals are “opposites,” because they engage in struggle with each other. Development can be realized only through harmonious correlatives, whereas in the case of struggling opposites, development is blocked and can come to a complete deadlock. Communism has tried to reform politics, economy, and culture based on its materialistic dialectic―the theory of contradiction, or the theory of opposites―and, as a result, they have come to a deadlock which can never be controlled.

Development is achieved through the give and receive action of correlatives centered on purpose, and never through the conflict between opposites where there is no common purpose. The theory of correlatives is a theoretical method which today can provide a fundamental solution to the chaos of Communist countries, as well as of the free world. Thus, the theory of correlatives becomes yet another standard for solving actual problems.

B. Formation of the Four Position Foundation

1. Constituents of the Four Position Foundation

As already explained, give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang in the Original Image gives rise to two different results, depending on the center. When the center is Heart, the result is union, and when the center is purpose (purpose of creation), the result is a new being. The same thing can be said about the give and receive action between created beings, since the give and receive action of created beings resembles that in the Original Image.

There are two kinds of give and receive action: One is the give and receive action centered on Heart whereby a state of unity is realized; the other kind is the give and receive action which is centered on purpose, whereby new beings are produced. The former is the give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang which gives rise to harmony (union) (DP, 19) and the latter is the give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang which multiplies substantial object partners (DP, 24), i.e., the creation of all things. This is illustrated in fig 1.5.

The characteristics of the give and receive action in the Original Image manifest themselves in created beings, especially in human beings. A human being is the union of mind and body, or the union of sungsang and Hyungsang, which are engaged in give and receive action centering on purpose (purpose of creation). An artist makes a plan or has an idea in his or her mind, and then he or she paints a picture or carves a statue with his or her hands using artistic instruments. This is the multiplication of a new being through the give and receive action between sungsang and Hyungsang centering on a purpose (the purpose of producing a work of art).

In the give and receive action whereby unity is realized, the sungsang and Hyungsang before, and the sungsang and Hyungsang after the give and receive action are not essentially different. The same sungsang and the same Hyungsang have simply become unified. For example, when a man and a woman marry, the man is the same man before and after the marriage, and the woman is the same woman before and after the marriage. The only difference is that the man and the woman are united in oneness after the marriage. On the other hand, in the give and receive action whereby a new being is produced, the sungsang and Hyungsang before give and receive action and the result (new being) which has appeared after give and receive action are different.

The give and receive action through which unity is realized, is called an “identity-maintaining give and receive action”; and the give and receive action through which a new being is produced, is called a “developmental give and receive action.”

Seen from the viewpoint of change or motion, the former is called a “static give and receive action” since the sungsang and Hyungsang undergo no change either before orafter the give and receive action; and the latter is called a “dynamic give and receive action,” since a new being appears as the result of the give and receive action. Seen from the viewpoint of position, give and receive action between sungsang and Hyungsang is that between subject and object, whereby, together with the center and the result, a four position foundation is established. Accordingly, the identity-maintaining give and receive action gives rise to an identity-maintaining four position foundation, and the developmental give and receive action gives rise to a developmental four position foundation. Therefore, we have two kinds of four position foundation: the identity-maintaining four position foundation, in which a union is formed, and the developmental four position foundation, in which a new being is formed.

2. Inner Four Position Foundation and Outer Four Position Foundation

There are another pair of four position foundations. These are the “inner four position foundation” and the “outer four position foundation.” These two four position foundations arise from inner give and receive action and outer give and receive action, respectively.

I explained earlier, in the section on the “Content of the Original Image,” that the Original Sungsang consists of the functional part and the objective part, or the Inner Sungsang and the Inner Hyungsang. In other words, there are another Sungsang and Hyungsang within the Original Sungsang.

Seen from just the position of the Original Sungsang, there are Sungsang (Inner Sungsang) and Hyungsang (Inner Hyungsang) internally within itself, and then there are this Sungsang (Original Sungsang) together with the Hyungsang (Original Hyungsang) externally. When Sungsang and Hyungsang enter into a reciprocal relationship centering on a common element, give and receive action necessarily takes place. Hence, give and receive action takes place both internal to the Original Sungsang, between Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang, and externally between the Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang. The former is called the inner give and receive action and the latter the outer give and receive action. In these give and receive actions, center (Heart, or purpose) and result (union, or new being) are involved necessarily, giving rise to the four position foundation: The inner four position foundation is formed through an inner give and receive action, and the outer four position foundation is formed through an outer give and receive action. These are illustrated in fig. 1.6.

In human beings, the inner and outer give and receive actions correspond to one’s internal life and external life. The internal life refers to one’s individual spiritual life, and the external life refers to one’s social life wherein he or she associates with others. The internal life is the give and receive action that takes place within one’s mind, and the external life is the give and receive action that takes place in one’s relationship with other people. Such inner and outer give and receive actions in humans are modeled after the Original Sungsang’s inner and outer give and receive actions. The inner and outer give and receive actions manifest themselves in every created being as well as in human beings.

As already explained, the relationship between Sungsang and Hyungsang is that between subject and object, and give and receive action between subject and object, with the involvement of the center and the result, result in the formation of a four position foundation. Accordingly, seen from the viewpoint of position, the inner give and receive action becomes an inner four position foundation, and the outer give and receive action becomes an outer four position foundation. Thus, the Original Sungsang is engaged in the formation of four position foundations both internally and externally. The Inner four position foundation together with the outer four position foundation in the Original Image is called the “two stage structure of the Original Image.” Taking after this structure of the Original Image, four position foundations are formed internally and externally in each and every created being. This structure in created beings is called the “two stage structure of existence.”

3. Two-Stage Structure of the Original Image and Two-Stage Structure of Existence

In all created beings, without exception, the inner and outer four position foundations, which are derived from the Original Image, are formed. In other words, in order for any created being to exist, it must necessarily form both the inner and outer four position foundations. The give and receive action in the Original Image is round and harmonious centered on Heart, or on the purpose of creation. Accordingly, in all things, the inner and outer four position foundations are to be formed, without exception, through round and harmonious inner and outer give and receive actions centering on the purpose of creation. Human beings, however, failed to form the inner four position foundation and the outer four position foundation centering on Heart (love) or the purpose of creation, in their internal life (spiritual life) and external life (social life). Instead, they have deviated into self-centeredness, giving rise to such social dysfunctions as friction, conflict, opposition, struggle, and so on.

Therefore, the fundamental way of solving social problems (actual problems) is for human beings to re-establish original four position foundations internally and externally. Thus, the theory of the inner four position foundation and the outer four position foundation becomes another standard for settling actual problems. In this way, the inner four position foundation and the outer four position foundation in the Original Image become the standard for the existence of all created beings.

This discussion has been concerned with the “two-stage structure of the Original Image,” which consists of inner and outer four position foundations in the Original Image, and the “two-stage structure of existence,” which consists of inner and outer four position foundations in created beings. The “two-stage structure of existence” resembles the “two-stage structure of the Original Image” according to the law of resemblance. These structures are illustrated in figures 1.7 and 1.8.

C. Kinds of Four Position Foundations

I would like now to discuss the kinds of four position foundations. As I have already explained, there are inner and outer four position foundations as well as the identity-maintaining and developmental four position foundations. Hence, we have four different kinds of four position foundations. In combination we have the following foundations: inner identity-maintaining four position foundation, outer identity-maintaining four position foundation, inner developmental four position foundation, and outer developmental four position foundation. These are illustrated in fig. 1.9. I would like now to explain each of them in turn.

1. Inner Identity-Maintaining Four Position Foundation

The inner identity-maintaining four position foundation is the combi-nation of the inner four position foundation and the identity-maintaining four position foundation. It is an inner four position foundation, within the Original Sungsang, which maintains itself and is unchanging.

The identity-maintaining four position foundation is formed when the Sungsang and Hyungsang are engaged in give and receive action, and unity is realized as a result. The identity-maintaining four position foundation is formed internally within the Sungsang and, at the same time, externally between Sungsang and Hyungsang. We human beings live our lives while thinking various things in our mind. Thinking is carried out internally through give and receive action between inner sungsang and inner Hyungsang whereby inner four position foundations are formed. We also live our lives externally through give and receive action with other people, whereby outer four position foundations are formed.

When one’s thinking is reflective and quiescent, and the result of thinking is a certain state of mind; i.e., a union of inner sungsang and inner Hyungsang, it is said that an identity-maintaining four position foundation is formed internally within one’s mind; thus, an inner identity-maintaining four position foundation is formed.

Within every created being, give and receive action takes place, and thereby an inner identity-maintaining four position foundation is formed. In this inner identity-maintaining four position foundation, the center is heart and, at the same time, it is the purpose of creation established by heart, and give and receive action between subject and object is carried out harmoniously, bringing about the result, which is a union (united being). The prototype of such an inner identity-maintaining four position foundation in created beings lies in the inner identity-maintaining four position foundation in the Original Sungsang.

2. Outer Identity-Maintaining Four Position Foundation

The outer identity-maintaining four-position foundation is the combination of the outer four-position foundation and the identity-maintaining four-position foundation. It is an outer four-position foundation formed outside the Original Sungsang, and its character is immutability. It is the harmonious state of God’s attributes prior to the creation of all things, namely, the harmonious state of Sungsang and Hyungsang. In a family or in a society, we live with other people helping each other or relying on one another. Here, outer identity-maintaining four-position foundations are formed between members of a family or a society.

The outer identity-maintaining four-position foundation is accompanied by the inner identity-maintaining four-position foundation. A good example is a married couple. While husband and wife each live their own lives, thus forming their own inner identity-maintaining four-position foundations, they live in harmony and help each other, and in this way the unity of husband and wife is realized. This unity of husband and wife is the formation of an outer identity-maintaining four-position foundation. Thus, an outer identity-maintaining four-position foundation is inseparable from an inner identity-maintaining four-position foundation. In other words, an outer identity-maintaining four-position foundation is established on the basis of an inner identity-maintaining four-position foundation.

Let me now explain the relationship between all things, taking the relationship between the sun and the earth as an example. The sun and the earth are engaged in the giving and receiving of universal gravitation (under the operation of the Universal Prime Force). The sun is the subject and the earth is its object; the sun is the center, while the earth is dependent on the sun.

In the created world, the give and receive action between subject and object gives rise to a circular motion in which the object revolves around the subject.

This circular motion is the expression of the round and harmonious nature of the give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang within the Original Image. In other words, where there is a circular motion, there is a give and receive action between subject and object.

In the relationship between the sun and the earth, the earth rotates around its own axis while revolving around the sun. This is to maintain both its own identity and the solar system: maintaining itself through rotation, and maintaining the solar system through revolution. In other words, a give and receive action is taking place internally within the earth in order to maintain the earth, and a give and receive action is taking place externally between the earth and the sun in order to maintain the solar system. The sun itself is maintaining its identity by its rotation. At the same time, in the solar system the sun is exercising its dominion over the earth, as subject and its center: the sun gives universal gravitation (under the operation of the Universal Prime Force) and light to the earth; thereby the sun helps the earth revolve around the sun while maintaining life on the planet. At the same time, the sun, as an object, revolves around the center of the galaxy, its subject. Thus, both the inner identity-maintaining four-position foundation and the outer identity-maintaining four-position foundation are established for the sun as well as for the earth. These inner and outer identity-maintaining four-position foundations are inseparable.

Circular motion which manifests the inner identity-maintenance (namely, rotation) and the circular motion which manifests the outer identity-maintenance (namely, revolution) are also seen in the original way of human life. Yet, since human life is spiritual, circular motion in this case is not physical, but it is a round, harmonious, and smooth give and receive action centered on love, which is the same as in the Original Image. In humans, the inner identity- maintaining four position foundation is manifested as one’s peaceful and loving personality. As for the object partner, the outer identity-maintaining four-position foundation consists of its revolution around the subject, which means obedience and gratitude to the subject. As for the subject partner, the outer identity-maintaining four position foundation is manifested as its dominion over the object through truth and love: the subject continuously loves and educates the object.

So far I have explained the inner identity-maintaining four-position foundation and the outer identity-maintaining four-position foundation in the original world. Yet, in fallen society today we can hardly recognize such an ideal case. Instead, we witness only the overall collapse of values and increasing social crimes. Thus, the theory of inner and outer four-position foundations in the Original Image becomes another important standard for solving actual problems.

3. Inner Developmental Four Position Foundation

The inner developmental four position foundation is the combination of the inner four position foundation and the developmental four position foundation; namely, it is the inner four position foundation, which has the character of development and movement. Here, developmental four position foundation refers to the four position foundation which is established through give and receive action between subject and object, centering on the purpose of creation, whereby a new being is produced.

Internally and externally, developmental four position foundations are formed in the Original Image. Yet, unlike the case of the identity-maintaining four position foundations, inner and outer developmental four position foundations are not formed simultaneously, but rather successively: the inner developmental four position foundation is formed first, and then the outer developmental four position foundation is formed after that.

In the case of the production of a commodity or a work of art by human beings, an idea or a plan is made first and then a commodity or a work of art is produced or created using machines and tools. Thus, planning comes first and production is second. Planning, which takes place in the mind, is internal, whereas production, which is made with machines or tools, is external. Both planning and production are made through the formation of four position foundations. The result of planning is a new being, and the result of production is also a new being. The plan is not vague, and it is made with a clear purpose of producing a definite commodity. Needless to say, production is made with a clear purpose as well. Thus, four position foundations both in planning and in production are centered on purpose. Four position foundations accompanied by a purpose and a new being are developmental four position foundations. Developmental four position foundations are formed internally and externally; the inner developmental four position foundation for planning, and the outer developmental four position foundation for production.

The prototype of the process of planning in human productive activity is the structure of the Original Image. It is the inner developmental four position foundation (the formation of Logos) which is established through give and receive action between Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang centering on purpose within the Original Sungsang. Thus, the inner developmental four position foundation in the Original Image is the prototype for all inner developmental four position foundations in created beings.

Next, I will explain in detail about the inner developmental four position foundation in the Original Sungsang, under the topics: “purpose as the center,” “Inner Sungsang as subject,” “Inner Hyungsang as object,” “inner give and receive action,” and “a plan as the result.”

a) Purpose as the Center

The center of the inner developmental four position foundation is purpose (purpose of creation), which is based on Heart, the emotional impulse to love. Since God’s creation is motivated by Heart, the purpose of creation is to have object partners of love and to realize a loving world. God therein wanted joy and comfort. Human beings were created as God’s object partners of love, and all things were created as human beings’ object partners of love. Accordingly, the “purpose for being created” for we human beings is that we love each other and love all things, thereby giving joy and comfort to God. The “purpose for being created” for all things is that they give beauty and joy to we human beings, while at the same time realizing harmony with each other. Due to the fall, however, human beings became unable to love each other, and they became unable to fully love all things and appreciate their beauty. As a result they made God sorrowful and made all things groan in travail (Rom. 8:22).

Human beings were created after the pattern of God, according to the law of likeness. This applies also to their purpose of creation. Originally, the purpose of all human activities of creation (production, manufacturing, artistic creation, and so on) is to realize God’s love according to the purpose of creation. Due to their fall, however, human beings became self-centered, and they became unable to realize God’s love. As a result, they went against the Way of Heaven, and human societies have fallen into chaos. Accordingly, the way to settle the great confusion of today’s world is for all people to bring the purpose of all their activities of creation into complete harmonization with God’s purpose of creation. This theory concerning purpose at the center of the inner developmental four position foundation, thus becomes another standard for solving actual problems.

b) Inner Sungsang as Subject

What Is Inner Sungsang?
In the inner developmental four position foundation, Inner Sungsang is in the subject position. Inner Sungsang consists of intellect, emotion and will. These three faculties are not independent of each other, but rather they are connected to each other. In the intellect, emotion and will are included; in the emotion, intellect and will are included; and in the will, intellect and emotion are included. In other words, these three faculties function as one; and from their unity, the intellectual faculty works relatively strongly at one time, the emotional faculty works relatively strongly at another time, and the volitional faculty works relatively strongly at yet another time. It is necessary for us to understand the three faculties of the mind as such. These three united faculties of the mind were mobilized for the formation of the inner developmental four position foundation in God’s Sungsang.

When we understand the three faculties of intellect, emotion and will in this way, we realize that the three values of truth, beauty and goodness, which correspond to these three faculties, respectively, also have some common elements between them. Furthermore, the three major fields of culture (the academic field, the artistic field, and the field of religion and morality), which correspond to the three values of truth, beauty and goodness, also have some common element between them. It should be noted here also that there are intermediate fields among the three major fields mentioned.

This point bears an important actual significance. Motivated by Heart, God established the purpose of creation, and He mobilized the three faculties of intellect, emotion and will centering on that purpose, whereby He invested all His power in His creation (Rev. Moon once said, “God invested all of Himself in His creation of heaven and earth”). In His providence of re-creation as well, He mobilized all His faculties of intellect, emotion and will. Furthermore, in the history of restoration, especially today, when the chaos of the Last Days prevails, the three great fields of culture―the academic field, such as science and philosophy; the artistic field, such as music, dance, painting, sculpture, poetry and so on; and the field of life norms, such as religion, morality and ethics―have to be mobilized for the purpose of the realization of God’s ideal world, namely, the world of the unified culture, or the world of the culture of heart.

Nevertheless, today, almost all cultural fields have lost their proper direction, and they are sinking into degeneracy. In our time, pseudo-revolutionary thoughts such as Marxism and Kim Il-Sung’s Juche Idea advocate proletarian art and folk art. In fact, however, they are vulgarizing and making sterile all the cultural fields, especially the arts.

It is evident, therefore, that intellectuals, and scholars who are engaged in the various cultural fields today, have an urgent mission to accomplish. They should understand God’s purpose of creation and advance forward with firm determination to realize it, and construct the ideal world of creation, the world of the unified culture (culture of heart). Thus, the fact that the three faculties of intellect, emotion and will in the Inner Sungsang were mobilized, centering on purpose, in the formation of the inner developmental four position foundation in God’s Creation, is also an important standard for solving actual problems.

Inner Sungsang Is the Union of Spirit Mind and Physical Mind
It should be noted here that the intellect, emotion and will of both the spirit self and the physical self are contained in the human mind. Since a human being is a dual being (united being) of spirit self and physical self, the human mind is the union of spirit mind and physical mind. Hence, the faculties of intellect, emotion and will of the spirit mind and those of the physical mind are combined and united in the human inner sungsang. The physical mind has an instinctive level of intellect, emotion and will. The intellect, emotion and will of the spirit mind is creative and developmental, whereas the intellect, emotion and will of the physical mind is not.

The intellectual faculty of the physical mind is capable of sensibility and perception with a low level of understanding, whereas the intellectual faculty of the spirit mind is capable of the functions of perception, understanding and reason, through which abstract and universal truths can be attained. The spirit mind thinks of, and reflects upon, oneself; namely, it possesses self-consciousness. When the neuro-physiologist John Eccles and the biologist Andree Goudot-Perrot say that only human beings possess self-consciousness, they are referring to the spirit mind.

The emotional faculty of the physical mind is also of a lower level than that of the spirit mind. The emotional faculty of the physical mind has the ability to feel joy, anger, sorrow, and easiness, and to show an altruistic nature, to a lesser extent than does the spirit mind. The emotional faculty of the spirit mind is of a higher level, and with it we are able to engage in artistic activities, and to love our nation and humankind, often even at the risk of our lives.

The volitional faculty of the physical mind is also of a lower level than that of the spirit mind. The volitional faculty consists of desire, the power of practice, and the power of decision, with all of which the purpose of creation (the purpose for the individual and the purpose for the whole) can be realized. An animal’s purpose of creation is achieved primarily through material life (food, shelter, multiplication, and so on), while the purpose of creation in human beings is achieved through one’s spiritual life (a life of truth, goodness and beauty). Thus, in the volitional faculty as well, there is a distinction between animals and human beings. The volitional function of an animal is solely related to food, clothing, shelter, and sex; but the volitional function of human beings is a combination of that of the physical mind together with that of the spirit mind. In an original human being, the spirit mind is superior to the physical mind; therefore, we should put our priority on pursuing a life of value, and only then should we be concerned with our material life.

I have explained above that human intellect, emotion and will are the union of these faculties of the spirit mind with those of the physical mind: Intellect is the union of the intellect of the spirit mind with that of the physical mind, and the same thing can be said about emotion and will. Furthermore, these three faculties of intellect, emotion, and will are not separate from each other, but rather they are unified. In Unification Thought epistemology, this unified inner sungsang is called “spiritual apperception.” Spiritual apperception is the unified faculty of cognition which is centered on the spirit mind. This concept of the inner sungsang as the union of intellect, emotion, and will can provide solutions to the historically unsolved problems concerning freedom.

c) Inner Hyungsang as Object

What Is Inner Hyungsang?
Next, I will discuss the Inner Hyungsang, which is in the object position in the inner developmental four position foundation. As already explained, the Inner Hyungsang, the aspect of form in the Original Sungsang, consists of ideas, concepts, principles, and mathematical principles. An idea is a concrete image of each created being that will be created, or already has been created. A concept is a universal image of features abstracted from a group of ideas. Principles are the root cause of the natural laws of the universe and the norms of human life. Finally, mathematical principles are the ultimate cause of the numerical phenomena in the natural world.

Let me explain here about the elements of the Inner Hyungsang in relation with creation. What kind of role did the Inner Hyungsang play in God’s creation? Figuratively speaking, it performed the role of a mold. A mold can be understood as a container into which molten metal is poured in order to make a certain metallic product. It can be said that the Original Hyungsang, or pre-energy, corresponds to this molten metal during the process of God’s creation. In other words, in a manner analogous to that of making iron products by pouring molten iron into a mold, God created all things by pouring the spiritual molten metal (Original Hyungsang) into the spiritual mold (Inner Hyungsang).

Inner Hyungsang Is a Kind of Mold
A mold of Inner Hyungsang is not simply a mold concerned with external appearances, as in the case of an artificial mold. A mold of Inner Hyungsang is vastly more detailed and includes internal structure as well. For example, the mold for the creation of a human physical body includes the intimately detailed structure of internal viscera, organs, tissues, and cells. A mold of Inner Hyungsang is made up of ideas, concepts, laws, and mathematical principles. Living beings which belong to a certain species have a common peculiar shape and a common character and they obey certain laws and mathematical principles. It is because of this that all things are created taking after the Inner Hyungsang, the spiritual mold, in a way analogous to that by which an iron product resembles its mold.

A spiritual mold of Inner Hyungsang, as just explained, is directly related to a created being. It should be noted, however, that there are many other ideas, concepts, laws, and mathematical principles which are the molds not for created beings but rather for abstract beings. For example, such ideas or concepts as “God,” “I,” “parents,” “beauty,” “ideal,” “purpose,” and so on are not molds for things that appear in the world of time and space; they take part in creation but they are not molds for created beings as such.

Inner Hyungsang Is a Kind of Mold
A mold of Inner yungsang is not simply a mold concerned with external appearances, as in the case of an artificial mold. A mold of Inner Hyungsang is vastly more detailed and includes internal structure as well. For example, the mold for the creation of a human physical body includes the intimately detailed structure of internal viscera, organs, tissues, and cells. A mold of Inner Hyungsang is made up of ideas, concepts, laws, and mathematical principles. Living beings which belong to a certain species have a common peculiar shape and a common character and they obey certain laws and mathematical principles. It is because of this that all things are created taking after the Inner Hyungsang, the spiritual mold, in a way analogous to that by which an iron product resembles its mold.

A spiritual mold of Inner Hyungsang, as just explained, is directly related to a created being. It should be noted, however, that there are many other ideas, concepts, laws, and mathematical principles which are the molds not for created beings but rather for abstract beings. For example, such ideas or concepts as “God,” “I,” “parents,” “beauty,” “ideal,” “purpose,” and so on are not molds for things that appear in the world of time and space; they take part in creation but they are not molds for created beings as such.

d) Inner Give and Receive Action

What Is Inner Give and Receive Action?
An inner developmental four position foundation is formed in the Original Sungsang through the inner give and receive action, centering on the purpose of bringing forth a new being. This inner give and receive action is carried out between subject and object in the Original Sungsang; namely, between the unified faculty of intellect, emotion and will, and Inner Hyungsang. The inner give and receive action centered on the purpose of creation, is the “thinking” or “planning” that takes place in God’s mind.

Why do we regard “thinking” as a give and receive action? Thinking, as we commonly understand it, is constituted by such functions of the mind as memory, reflection, judgment, interest, planning, opinion, understanding, imagination, conjecture, inference, hoping, meditation, interpretation, and so on. To be honest, even an illusion can be included in the concept of thinking, since it is also a phenomenon in the mind.

Thinking can, in turn, be classified into three categories: thinking of the past, thinking about the present, and thinking of the future. Thinking of the past is related to memory, thinking about the present is related to opinion, inference, understanding, and so on, and thinking of the future is related to planning, hoping, and so on. It should be noted here that ideas (or images) are necessarily involved in any kind of thinking. These ideas in our mind were acquired through our past experiences. For example, we have the images of birds or flowers in our mind because we have seen and experienced them. Thus, thinking always includes ideas (images), with which give and receive action is made in our mind.

Operation of Ideas
What does the expression “thinking necessarily requires ideas” mean? It means that any kind of thinking we do―whether it is related to the past, the present, or the future―is possible only with the use of ideas acquired from our past experiences. The richer our experiences in the past, in other words, the more ideas we can have, the more thinking we can do. This is similar to being able to increase one’s living expenses, when it is necessary, if one has saved money. Also, it is like our being able to use a necessary good at any time, if we have stored up a lot of goods. To deepen our knowledge is, in other words, to store up various ideas in the storehouse of our memory. Thus, ideas are drawn from the storehouse of memory and they are dealt with appropriately in our thinking, just as we select goods from the storehouse and use them fittingly, for example, in arranging a room. This process is called the “operation of ideas” in Unification Thought.

An idea is an image in the mind. An idea corresponding to a being is called a “simple idea,” whereas an idea consisting of two or more simple ideas in combination is a “complex idea.” Here, it should be noted that “simple” and “complex” are relative concepts. An operation, as in an operation of ideas, is something like the operation of machines. The operation of machines includes the following procedures: preparation of the machines and parts, construction of machines, overhaul of machines, assembly of parts into a machine, change of parts within a machine, assembly of a machine into a unified system, and so on.

Operation of Ideas is Give and Receive Action
The operation of ideas is carried out in a manner similar to the operation of machines. The “recollection” of an idea corresponds to the preparation of a machine. The “association” or “composition” of ideas corresponds to the construction of machines. The “analysis” of an idea corresponds to the overhaul of a machine. The “formation” of a new idea corresponds to the assembly of a new machine. “Conversion” corresponds to the exchange of parts within a machine. The “synthesis” of ideas corresponds to the assembly of machines into a unified system. There is another operation of ideas, which is called “obversion,” during which an affirmative form of judgment is changed into a negative form of judgment. Thus, the operation of ideas refers to recollection, association, analysis, formation, conversion, synthesis, obversion, and so on, with which various ideas are dealt with.

Recollection is to retrieve a necessary idea from one’s past experiences. Association of ideas means that one is reminded of an idea by the presence of another idea. For example, one is reminded of one’s mother when one thinks of one’s father. The formation of an idea refers to the operation with which several lower-level ideas are combined to form a higher-level idea. For example, an idea of a house is composed of the lower-level ideas of foundation, cornerstone, pillar, crossbeam, beam, girder, rafter, roof, room, and so on. An analysis of an idea refers to the division of an idea into lower-level ideas. For example, we analyze our body as consisting of the nervous system, digestive system, sense organs, circulatory system, respiratory system, muscular tissue, urinary organs, endocrine glands, lymph nodes, and so on. Synthesis of ideas refers to the operation in which various lower-level ideas are united into a higher-level idea. For example, the union of the ideas of the nervous system, digestive system, sense organs, circulatory system, respiratory system, muscular tissue, urinary organs, and so on makes the higher-level idea of the human body. Conversion is the operation in which subject and object are exchanged while keeping the content of judgment. For example, the judgment “Every A is B” is changed into “Some B is A.” Obversion is the operation of changing an affirmative form of judgment into a negative form of judgment (i.e., a predicate is changed into the negative form), while keeping the meaning: “A is B” is changed into “A is not non-B.”

I have engaged in making a rather long explanation here in order to better help the reader to understand “thinking” as inner give and receive action.

Types of Give and Receive Action
As explained above, different kinds of thinking (recollection, judgment, opinion, imagination, understanding, inference, and so on) take place by operating with ideas in various ways. Give and receive action consists in the operation of ideas (see fig. 1.10). I can explain this point further. In order to understand that the operation of ideas is give and receive action, we first need to understand the types of give and receive action. There are five types: bi-conscious type, uni-conscious type, unconscious type, heteronomous type, and contrast type (or collation type).

A bi-conscious type of give and receive action is made when both the subject and the object have consciousness. A uni-conscious type is made when the subject has consciousness, whereas the object, which is an inorganic non-living being, does not. An unconscious type is one carried out unconsciously between subject and object. For example, the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between animals and plants is made unconsciously. A heteronomous type of give and receive action is made when two parties, which are non-living beings, are induced by the will of a third party to engage in give and receive action. For example, the various parts of a machine engage in give and receive action with one another according to the will of the engineer who made the machine.

A contrast type of give and receive action is made during the process of cognition, or in a judgment. In this type, only the subject has consciousness, as in the uni-conscious type. In this type, however, the subject purposefully brings into contrast two or more objective beings or elements within an object. For example, when we see a man and woman walking on the street we recognize them as husband and wife by making a comparison of their ages and gestures. Or, again, when we see commodities in a store, we select a good one by making a comparison of their qualities. Also, when we see a house with a red tile roof in a green forest, we can appreciate beauty by sensing harmony between them. In a contrast type of give and receive action, a judgment or comparison is made unilaterally by the subject. Yet, a judgment or comparison is possible only when the object manifests its appearance to the subject, who takes an active interest in the object. This is why this is also considered to be a give and receive action.

Thinking Is a Contrast Type of Give and Receive Action
I have explained that thinking is made by give and receive action. The spiritual apperception, or the subject of cognition, which is the union of intellect, emotion and will in the mind, contrasts various ideas obtained from one’s experiences and these ideas are then stored in the inner Hyungsang. When the spiritual apperception contrasts the two elements, it recognizes one element as subject and the other element as object. The focus of interest of the spiritual apperception goes back and forth between the two elements within inner Hyungsang. Thus, two elements are regarded as being engaged in a give and receive action, which is a contrast type of give and receive action in a narrow sense. Thus, both the give and receive action between the spiritual apperception and the inner Hyungsang and that between the two elements within the inner Hyungsang are contrast types of give and receive action.

What is the result of the give and receive action (or collation) between any two elements? Sometimes, two elements are regarded as being completely the same, and at other times they are regarded as resembling each other, and at still other times they are regarded as being different from each other. There are even cases in which they might be regarded as opposites. In other words, they can be seen as being in a relationship of correspondence in some cases, and as not being so in others. Since give and receive action takes place centering on purpose, the result may be different depending on the purpose. Anticipating a certain result, our spiritual apperception carries out give and receive action toward a definite direction. This is the act of thinking. It is because of the difference in the purpose of give and receive action and the way of collation that we come to have such various kinds of thinking as recollection, understanding, judgment, inference, hope, and so on. Thus, various ways of thinking are made successively in the same way that water flows in a river.

A flow of thinking can come to a conclusion at a given point. Then, an idea (either simple or complex) which can serve as a mold for the created being is formed. This idea might be called an “idea-mold.” An idea-mold is a new being that has been formed through the contrast type of give and receive action. It is a “new idea,” a mold for creation. However, this is not yet a Logos (plan), but rather it is a stage prior to a Logos, which might be called a “pre-Logos” or “pre-plan.” A new idea, or an idea-mold is something concrete, in which concepts, laws, and mathematical principles are included. In other words, it is a concrete idea for a created being with its detailed internal structures. This new idea, or pre-Logos (pre-plan) is formed in the initial stage of the inner give and receive action. The Logos (plan) of a created being is established in the second, following stage.

Purpose Is the Center
Thinking is an inner give and receive action taking place in the mind, and the give and receive action is centered on purpose. In humans, however, thinking is often vague, not having a definite purpose. In contrast, in God, the Creator, thinking is based on purpose from the very beginning. This is the purpose of creation (purpose for the whole, and the purpose for the individual), which is based on Heart.

Prior to God’s thinking of creation, the four position foundation centered on Heart, or the identity-maintaining four position foundation, was formed in God. Since Heart is an irrepressible emotional impulse, He could not help but establish the purpose of creation. The developmental four position foundation was formed on the basis of this identity-maintaining four position foundation. In other words, the identity-maintaining four position foundation (the unchangeability and absoluteness of God) remains as the basis of the developmental four position foundation, even after His creation.

Thus, God’s planning or thinking was made centered on purpose and Heart. This is a very important point, since it becomes yet another standard for settling actual problems. Originally, it is not that we were allowed to be engaged in just any kind of thinking, but rather, we were meant to think solely motivated by Heart, and for the realization of the purpose of creation. Hence, in order to settle today’s social confusion, we need to abandon our self-centered, arbitrary ways of thinking and return to the original way: to think and act in order to realize the purpose of creation, in other words, to realize the Kingdom of Heaven.

e) A Plan as the Result

What Is the Result?
What is the plan that is to be established as a result of the formation of the inner four position foundation? In the previous section, “inner give and receive action,” I explained planning as thinking, or as inner give and receive action. Now, I will explain the plan as being the result of thinking. The plan refers to the Word, or Logos, as is written in the Bible (John 1:1), an aspect of the Divine Character in the Original Image. Though I have already explained Logos as plan and as reason-law, I have explained it mainly as reason-law, and I have yet to explain it in detail as plan. Thus, some explanation should be added here. I can first summarize what has already been explained.

According to the Divine Principle, Logos is the Word or reason-law. The Word refers to idea, plan, and thought, and reason-law refers to the union of reason and law. Reason is characterized by freedom and purpose, whereas law is characterized by necessity and mechanicalness.

Accordingly, freedom and necessity are united and purpose and mechanicalness are united in the reason-law. Since the universe was created by reason-law, this reason-law is at work in all things. The reason-law at work in the natural world takes the form of natural laws, whereas the reason-law at work in human life, manifests as behavioral norms.

The fact that freedom and necessity are united in reason-law means that freedom is the freedom within necessity, or the freedom within law (principle). In other words, freedom is the freedom of selection by reason within the principle. Freedom outside the principle or law is license. Also, as already explained, Logos is the Word, or reason-law. Since reason-law, or the Word, is the object partner of God, resembling His dual characteristics (DP, 170), it is a new being and a created being. Besides these points, I have explained the following: Since creation is motivated by Heart, reason-law is also based on love. Love is at work behind both natural laws and values (or norms). In our daily life reason-law must be observed without fail. Only in a life of reason-law filled with love, can the peace of a spring garden, in which all kinds of flowers bloom, actually come.

Logos as Pre-plan
In the summary above I explained Logos mainly as reason-law, but I have not yet explained it as Word or plan in much detail. I will do so now.
Earlier I referred to planning when I discussed the inner give and receive action. Planning is not a plan, in the strict sense of a new being (resultant being). Rather, it is an action of thinking, namely, a give and receive action, or an operation of ideas. I have also referred to the concept of a “pre-plan.” This is a concrete spiritual mold, a model for a creature, or a “new idea” (an “idea-mold”), which is formed through a contrast type of give and receive action, and which contains concepts, laws, mathematical principles, and exact internal structures.

The plan (pre-plan), however, is not the plan in the sense of being the Word with which God created the universe. It is the prior stage Logos, which is a static image, similar to a photo; it is not a dynamic and living image as can be seen in a movie. In contrast, the Logos, or Word, with which God created the universe, is a new living being, or a living plan. This explanation is supported by the Biblical passage: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God; all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men (John 1:1-4).

Logos as Plan
The Word with which all things were created is a plan possessing life and vigor. It is a new idea with exact structures, an idea-mold, or a new being (formed through the operation of ideas), which is given life and has assumed a dynamic character. Then, how does a new idea, which before had a static character, come to assume a dynamic character? It does so by making the passage from the first stage to the second in the inner give and receive action. There are two stages in the inner give and receive action between the spiritual apperception (union of intellect, emotion and will) and the inner Hyungsang. In the first stage, a new idea (pre-plan) is formed through the operation of ideas. And in the second stage, the faculties of intellect, emotion and will are injected into the new idea centered on Heart (love), and then the new idea becomes vigorous and dynamic, and it becomes a perfected plan.

It must be clarified here that Yang and Yin, which exist as potentials within intellect, emotion and will, surface in the second stage, and harmonize the manifestation of the three faculties. The perfected plan in the second stage is Logos, the object partner of God, or Logos with dual characteristics (DP, 171). This is Logos as the Word with which God created the universe, or it is the plan as the result of the inner developmental four position foundation.

The dual characteristics of Logos refer to the fact that the necessary elements of both the inner sungsang and the inner Hyungsang are contained in the Logos, in accordance with its level and its kind. In other words, the faculties of intellect, emotion and will which are in the inner sungsang, and ideas, concepts, laws, and mathematical principles, which are in the inner Hyungsang, are contained in the Logos according to the level and kind of created being intended. Thus, in the second stage of inner give and receive action, the faculties of intellect, emotion and will, which are motivated by Heart, are injected into the pre-plan―which had been formed through the operation of ideas―to vitalize it.

This concludes my explanation of the inner developmental four position foundation. Let me briefly summarize what has been said so far.

f) A Summary of the Explanation of the Inner Developmental Four Position Foundation

Center of the Inner Developmental Four Position Foundation
The inner developmental four position foundation is formed prior to the outer developmental four position foundation in God’s creation. The purpose, which is the center of the four position foundation, and which is established on the basis of Heart, is to create human beings as God’s object partners of love, in other words, to realize love through human beings. Accordingly, for humans, the purpose of being created is to love one another, to love God and all things. Due to the fall, however, human beings have lost their original nature and have brought about today’s great confusion. Hence, one way to settle this confusion is to redirect all the purposes guiding human beings toward the original purpose of their being created.

Subject of the Inner Developmental Four Position Foundation
The three faculties of intellect, emotion, and will are united, and are in the subject position in the inner developmental four position foundation. The values of truth, beauty and goodness are pursued through the faculties of intellect, emotion and will, respectively, and three cultural fields can be established through realizing these three values. In His creation of the universe, to realize the purpose of creation, God invested His whole energy and all of His intellect, emotion and will. Hence, in order to restore fallen human culture, presently in crisis, and to create a new one, intellectuals and scholars in various cultural fields should come forth with a unified ideal. In the human mind the faculties of intellect, emotion and will of both the spirit mind and the physical mind are unified, and intellect, emotion, and will are also unified. This union of intellect, emotion, and will is called the “spiritual apperception.” Their spiritual apperception is what makes humans spiritual beings, and beings possessing self-consciousness. The spirit mind pursues a life of truth, goodness, beauty, and love, namely, a life of value, whereas the physical mind pursues a life of food, clothing, shelter, and sex, namely, a material life. In an original human being, priority is put on a life of value, pursued through the spirit mind, and a material life, as pursued through the physical mind, has a secondary priority.

Object in the Inner Developmental Four Position Foundation
The Inner Hyungsang, in which ideas, concepts, laws, and mathematical principles are included, is in the object position in the inner developmental four position foundation. In the Inner Hyungsang concepts, laws, and mathematical principles are united and included in an idea. This idea plays the role of a mold (spiritual mold) in creation. At times, a simple idea becomes the mold, and at other times a complex idea becomes the mold. The spiritual mold has an exact internal structure. The molten metal (spiritual molten metal) is pre-energy or the Original Hyungsang. There are countless spiritual molds used in creation, all different from each other. In other wods, each mold corresponds to an individual image. Since in humans the individual image is different for each person, the role of each mold is completed when once used. In contrast, the individual image for all things is for one species, and therefore, a single mold can provide for the many creatures that all belong to that one species.

Inner Give and Receive Action
In the inner developmental four position foundation a give and receive action between Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang is carried out centering on purpose. This is thinking or planning. Thinking is classified into three categories: thinking of the past (memory, recollection, and so on), thinking of the present (opinion, judgment, inference, and so on), and thinking of the future (plan, hope, ideal, and so on). The most fundamental element in thinking is an idea, or an image in the mind, and thinking is the process of working with ideas in various ways. The operation of ideas includes recollection, association, analysis, formation, conversion, synthesis, obversion, and so on.

Inner give and receive action, which takes place in the inner developmental four position foundation is, in short, the operation of ideas. The Inner Sungsang (spiritual apperception), the subject, and the Inner Hyungsang, the object, engage in give and receive action whereby the operation of ideas is carried out in various ways. The operation of ideas is made through a comparison of ideas. In other words, inner give and receive action consists of a comparison of ideas. This is a uniconscious type of give and receive action, and at the same time, a contrast type of give and receive action.

Result of the Inner Developmental Four Position Foundation
Finally, I can summarize my explanation of a plan, which is established in the position of “result.” A plan, as a result, is different from the planning in the inner give and receive action. The latter means thinking or an activity, whereas the former means a new being which appears as the result of give-and-receive action. The plan as a new being is Logos, or the Word with which God created all things.

Inner give and receive action consists of two stages. In the first stage, a new idea is formed through the operation of ideas in the Inner Hyungsang. A new idea is a pre-plan, an early stage of a plan, which is a static image lacking vitality or dynamism. The plan, as the Word with which God created the universe, is a new being endowed with vitality, which is formed in the second stage of inner give and receive action. The faculties of intellect, emotion, and will, or the spiritual apperception is injected into a new idea, and the idea is thereby activated, becoming a perfected idea. The plan formed in the second stage is the Logos, with dual characteristics, and reason-law is an integral part of it. Reason-law is the union of reason and law, wherein freedom and necessity are united. I have already discussed this point in detail in my explanation of the Logos in the section on the Divine Character.

4. Outer Developmental Four Position Foundation
a) What Is the Outer Developmental Four Position Foundation?

This foundation is a combination of the outer four position foundation and the developmental four position foundation. In other words, it is the outer four position foundation that has been formed through give and receive action outside the Original Sungsang, namely, between the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang, and which has assumed a developmental or dynamic nature.

As explained previously, development means the appearance of a being with a new character, namely, a new being (development is a concept arising when creation is seen from the perspective of the result). The developmental four position foundation is formed when the subject and object are engaged in give and receive action centering on the purpose of creation, thus giving rise to a new being.

The developmental four position foundation is formed inside and outside the Original
Sungsang, in the same way as is the identity-maintaining four position foundation. However, with the developmental four position foundation, the inner and outer four position foundations are not formed simultaneously. The inner developmental four position foundation is formed first, and then the outer developmental four position foundation is formed second.

b) Outer Developmental Four Position Foundation Is formed on the Basis of Inner Developmental Four Position Foundation

The four position foundation is a spatial understanding of the give and receive action, between subject and object, that is centered on Heart or purpose, and giving rise to a result. Accordingly, we can discuss the inner and outer developmental four position foundations from the viewpoint of give and receive action. Since development is a concept arising when creation is seen from the result, we can best understand the developmental four position foundation if we examine how the creation is made.

In creative activity, we first have an idea or plan in our mind. When we build a house, for instance, we first have a purpose and a plan in our mind and then we make a blueprint, or specifications, which is a plan written on paper. The formation of a plan is inner give and receive action, which takes place in the first stage of creation.

In the second stage of creation, a house is actually built using materials according to the plan. After a certain period of time, the building of a house is accomplished. Building a house with materials in accordance with the plan is give and receive action which takes place outside the mind; it is an outer give and receive action.

The plan is a new being that has not existed before, and the house is also a new creation that has not existed before. The appearance of a new being is creation when seen from the cause or motive, whereas it is development when seen from the result. In the outer give and receive action, the subject is a plan (to be exact, the person who made the plan or who keeps the plan), and the object is the various construction materials. The give and receive action between them is the construction work, and the result of the give and receive action is a completed house.

For another example, when a painter wants to draw a picture, he or she first sets up a purpose and makes a plan, which is a sketch. This is the first stage. When the plan is finished, the second stage starts. The painter paints a picture just as he or she planned, using materials such as a canvas, brushes, paints, an easel, and so on, until finally the actual picture is accomplished. The planning in the first stage, and the painting in the second stage, are both carried out through give and receive actions. Both the plan in the first stage and the picture in the second stage are new results, or new beings, which have not existed before. Thus, painting is creation, and at the same time is development.

c) All Creative Activities are Made Through the Two-Stage Developmental Four Position Foundations

I have clarified the following points. First, creation is always carried out in two stages. Second, the first, internal stage is planning, and the second, external stage is building or production. Third, both first and second stage give and receive actions are made centering on the same purpose, bringing about new beings as results. Here, the first stage is the inner developmental give and receive action, while the second stage is the outer developmental give and receive action.

These same principles are applied to all kinds of creative activities, including production, manufacturing, invention, art, and so on. The prototype of such activities is the inner and outer developmental give and receive actions within the Original Image. God first set up a purpose, and planned the creation of all things, and then He created all things as He planned by making use of the materials of the Hyungsang (pre-energy). Planning is carried out by the inner developmental give and receive action, while the creation of all things is carried out by the outer developmental give and receive action.

I have explained that in human creative activity, creation or production is always accompanied by planning. In other words, inner developmental give and receive action always accompanies outer developmental give and receive action. The prototype of give and receive action in human creative activity is the give and receive action within God’s Original Image.

Give and receive action always takes place on the basis of the four position foundation. Therefore, another name for the four position foundation is give and receive action, and another name for give and receive action is the four position foundation. Hence we may conclude: Since inner developmental give and receive action precedes outer developmental give and receive action, the inner developmental four position foundation precedes the outer developmental four position foundation. In other words, the inner developmental four position foundation and the outer developmental four position foundation are formed successively in God’s creation. This structure is called the “two-stage structure of creation of the Original Image,” which is illustrated in fig.1.11. In actual human creative activity as well, inner and outer four position foundations are formed successively; in this case the structure is called the “two-stage structure of actual creation.”

Here the following question may arise. Why is there a need to use such awkward terms as “inner developmental four position foundation,” “outer developmental four position foundation,” “two-stage structure,” and so on, in Unification Thought? Would it not be more understandable if we explained using such simple expressions as, “The plan is made first in creative activity”? Are sophisticated terms preferred over easy terms in Unification Thought? The primary reason why we use such technical terms is that Unification Thought is addressing the fundamental principles of the cosmos.

Fundamental principles or fundamental reasons should apply to all phenomena, whether in the spirit world or in the physical world. Fundamental principles cover a profound and broad sphere. Yet, the terms related to these principles should be as concise as possible. One example is “dual characteristics,” or “ sungsang and Hyungsang.” These terms apply to the human mind and body, as well as to the correlative attributes of animals, plants, minerals, and even those of a spirit person, and all things in the spirit world. Thus, the meaning of “dual characteristics” is broad and comprehensive. However, the term “dual characteristics” is difficult to understand as it is; therefore, it is necessary to explain it plainly and in more detail. Sometimes it becomes necessary to explain using an example or a metaphor.

Furthermore, such a way of explanation of Unification Thought terms is necessary since the fundamental principles dealt with in Unification Thought are mostly having to do with God and the spirit world, which can not be perceived with the physical five senses.

However, one must realize that an explanation using an example or a metaphor is merely an expedient way of clarifying a fundamental principle, and not the explanation of a fundamental principle in itself. A concept related to a fundamental principle is God’s “dual characteristics” or “ Sungsang and Hyungsang.” Also, “give and receive action,” “four position foundation,” and “two-stage structure” are basic concepts related to fundamental principles. Thus, these terms can not be neglected. “Inner developmental four position foundation,” “outer developmental four position foundation,” and “two-stage structure of creation” are also such concepts.

Concerning this point, it may be asked: “In this busy time, when we have to live sparing just a minute or so, why is it necessary to have to learn such involved concepts?” The reason is that the standard with which to solve various complex problems can be clarified only through a correct understanding of such basic concepts.

d) Constituent Elements of the Outer Four Position Foundation

Let me return now to my explanation of the outer developmental four position foundation. As already mentioned, in human creative activity the outer developmental four position foundation is always formed after the formation of the inner developmental four position foundation, and this two-stage process is called the “two-stage structure of actual creation.” Likewise, in God’s creation, a similar two-stage structure is formed: an inner developmental four position foundation and an outer developmental four position foundation are formed inside and outside of the Original Sungsang. This structure is called the “two-stage structure of creation of the Original Image,” since these four position foundations are formed within the Original Image at the time of creation.

I have already discussed the inner developmental four position foundation within the Original Image in detail. Hence, I will omit its discussion here except to mention the following points which we should keep in mind. First, the inner developmental four position foundation consists of the four positions of center, subject, object, and result, where purpose, Inner Sungsang (spiritual apperception), Inner Hyungsang, and a new being, respectively, are set up. Second, the give and receive action between the subject and object is the process of thinking, or the process of operating with ideas.

The outer developmental four position foundation also consists of the four positions of center, subject, object and result. In this case, the center is the purpose of creation based on Heart (the very same purpose of creation as in the inner developmental four position foundation), the subject is the Original Sungsang, the object is the Original Hyungsang, and the result is a new being (created being) formed through the give and receive action between them. I will explain more specifically about each of these positions of the developmental four position foundation. The purpose as the center is the same as in the inner developmental four position foundation. Thus, I will omit an explanation about the purpose as center, and will only explain here about the Original Sungsang as subject, the Original Hyungsang as object, the outer give and receive action between them, and the new created being as a result.

Original Sungsang as Subject
The outer developmental four position foundation in the Original Image is the foundation for give and receive action between Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang. What actually is the content of the Original Sungsang in the subject position? It is the plan which was formed as the result of the inner developmental four position foundation. In other words, it is the Word, Logos, or plan, that is, a new being formed through the inner give and receive action between the Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang. Inner give and receive action is thinking, or the process of thinking.

As already explained there are two stages in the process of inner give and receive action. In the first stage, an operation of ideas is made, whereby a pre-plan is formed. In the second stage, the faculties of intellect, emotion and will of the spiritual apperception are put into the pre-plan through the operation of Yang and Yin, which are the attributes of intellect, emotion and will, and the pre-plan then becomes a completed plan with vitality, which is the Logos with dual characteristics. Thus, the Logos is formed as a new being within the Original Sungsang. Logos, to which the spiritual apperception refers, is engaged as the subject in the give and receive action with the object (Original Hyungsang).

Here, I must clarify the following: Even if the spiritual apperception (the union of intellect, emotion and will), which is the Inner Sungsang, is put into a “new idea” in the Inner Hyungsang through the inner give and receive action, the spiritual apperception remains as it is; it retains its integrity and its function as the unity of intellect, emotion and will, since its function is essentially of an infinite and permanent nature. Thus, the Original Sungsang, which is engaged in the give and receive action with the Original Hyungsang, is the Logos to which the spiritual apperception refers.

Original Hyungsang as Object
As explained in the section on the Divine Image, the Original Hyung-sang is the fundamental material element with the potential for a limitless number of forms. The material element refers to the fundamental cause of the corporeal aspect of all created beings, and the potential for a limitless number of forms refers to the possibility of taking any shape, in the same way that water does. Since the material element is the fundamental cause of matter, and is thus beyond the sphere of science, it is called in Unification Thought “prior-stage energy,” or simply “pre-energy.” When water is put into a container, it conforms to the shape of the container. Likewise, when the Original Hyungsang is put into the mold (spiritual mold) of the plan in the Original Sungsang, a creation appears, as an actual being with a definite shape.

Outer Give and Receive Action
Next, I will explain outer give and receive action. With such an explanation we will be able to confirm the validity of the viewpoint of Divine Principle and Unification Thought that all things were created through give and receive action between the Sungsang and Hyungsang of God. Outer give and receive action also takes place based on the four position foundation. I can explain outer give and receive action as follows: subject and object, separated from each other, are united and give rise to new beings (all things). It must be realized that this kind of explanation is an expedient explanation designed to help our understanding. Since God transcends time and space, there is no actual inside or outside, up or down, far or near, or wide or narrow in God. There is no large, medium, small, and no infinity or infinitesimal. There is no before or after, and no past, or present, or future; thus, infinity and temporality are the same.

In this way, give and receive action in God transcends time and space. For the convenience of our understanding, however, we explain give and receive action in God using a spatial concept: subject and object, which are occupying the same space and overlap each other, are engaged in give and receive action. As a matter of fact, in a human being, who is the union of spirit self and physical self, spirit self and physical self are engaged in give and receive action, while they are overlapping each other; in other words, they are not spatially separated, but occupy the same space. From this point of view, I will explain outer give and receive action within the Original Image: subject (Original Sungsang) and object (Original Hyungsang) are engaged in give and receive action, giving rise to a new being (a creation), whereas the new being, the subject, and the object are occupying the same space, all overlapping each other.

As already explained, the subject in the outer developmental four position foundation is Logos (a new being to which the spiritual apperception refers) in the Original Sungsang, and the object is pre-energy, the potential for a limitless number of forms, in the Original Hyungsang. When subject and object are engaged in the give and receive action, while occupying the same space overlapping each other, a new being is created. The created being also occupies the same space, overlapping them. Thus, the four positions of the four position foundation are not four separated positions, but are rather united in one position where the four “settled beings” exist, overlapping each other.

Let me now explain concretely the give and receive action between Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang that overlap in one position. It is the injection of pre-energy into the mold (spiritual mold) of the plan (Logos). As already explained, a mold of an idea (idea-mold), or a new idea with fine internal structure is formed in the first stage of give and receive action within the Original Sungsang, and when it is given life by the impulsive force of Heart, it becomes a completed plan. This completed plan is a living idea-mold, or, a living mold. In other words, an idea-mold with fine internal structure in the first stage, is given life in the next stage. However, as much vitality as it may have, and as fine an internal structure it may be, it is still only a mold (spiritual mold). In making an iron product, molten iron is injected into a mold which has a spatial structure. Likewise, in God, the material element of the Original Hyungsang (pre-energy), which corresponds to molten iron, is injected into an idea-mold which has a spatial structure.

The spatial structure of a mold accepts and is filled by the molten metal. The injecting which takes place between the Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang, is give and receive action. In other words, it is give and receive action whereby the material element in the Original Hyungsang permeates into and fills the fine spatial structure of an idea-mold within the Original Sungsang. At this moment Yang and Yin, the attributes latent within the Original Hyungsang as potentiality, surface and bring about a harmonious variation to the stream of permeated matter of the Original Hyungsang. We can regard such a phenomenon as give and receive action, since the Original Sungsang, with its spatial structure, offers the Original Hyungsang an opportunity to permeate, and the Original Hyungsang fulfills the purpose of the spatial structure by filling it.

I have now explained outer give and receive action using the spatial expression of a model of mold to assist our understanding: Give and receive action between subject and object is carried out while they are occupying the same position overlapping each other. This is the content of the outer developmental give and receive action which takes place within the Original Image when God creates. We may add that this give and receive action is a uni-conscious type, wherein the subject is the spiritual apperception (with an idea-mold) and the object is the Original Hyungsang (matter).

Created Being as Result
A created being, as the result, is a new being formed through the give and receive action between the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang, centering on the purpose of creation. It is the “substantial object partner” or the “individual truth being” explained in the Divine Principle. Explaining the Divine Principle states as follows: “God, who is the subject of the dual characteristics of Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang, manifests Himself as the substantial object partner in image, and as the substantial object partner in symbol in accordance with the principle of creation” (p. 25). Also, it is written that every creation is “the individual truth being in the image of the dual characteristics of God” (ibid., 25), and “the substantial manifestation of the dual characteristics of subject and object” (ibid., 24). Exposition of the Divine Principle notes: “Every creation is God’s substantial object partner, formed in His likeness as a discrete projection of His dual characteristics” (DP, 19), and “These object partners are called individual embodiments of truth [individual truth beings], in image and symbol” (DP, 20).

The concepts of “substantial object partner” and “individual truth being” in the Divine Principle have slightly different meanings. This difference is a difference in viewpoint when seeing a created being. “Substantial object partner” is a concept wherein the focus is on the objective, material aspect of a being: it refers to the objective, material object in three-dimensional space, rather than to the idealistic being in the mind. “Individual truth being,” on the other hand, is a concept wherein the focus is on the dual characteristics of a being, which resemble those of God. Since every being, without exception, is created in accordance with the law of resemblance, it is an individual truth being.

Resemblance and Outer Give and Receive Action
When we say that all things were created in the image of God’s dual characteristics, wherein, concretely, lies the resemblance? As already explained, a creation is a new being that has appeared as the result of give and receive action between Original Sungsang and Original Hyung-sang centering on the purpose of creation. Here, Original Sungsang is the spiritual apperception with a living idea-mold, and Original Hyungsang is the material element. The living idea-mold is the Logos with dual characteristics.

The dual characteristics of Logos refers to the duality of Inner Sung-sang and Inner Hyungsang, where Inner Sungsang refers to the faculties of intellect, emotion and will, and Inner Hyungsang refers to an idea-mold, namely, a new idea formed through the operation of ideas. Thus, Logos is a new being in which the faculties of intellect, emotion and will, and an idea-mold are united. A part of the spiritual apperception (Inner Sung-sang) and an idea-mold (Inner Hyungsang) from the Original Sungsang are embodied in a created being (a final-stage new being). The material element from the Original Hyungsang is embodied as it is in a created being. This is what is stated in the following: The material element of the Original Hyungsang permeates into the fine spatial structure of an idea-mold. Thus, the elements of the Original Sungsang and the elements of the Original Hyungsang together give rise to a creation through the outer give and receive action between them.

It should be noted here that the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang create all things through the operation of Yang and Yin. Thus, all things assume the elements of Yang and Yin, as well as the elements of the Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang.

An idea-mold within the Original Sungsang is the same as an individual image. Finally, we can conclude that a creation has inherited all the attributes of God (Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang, Original Yang and Original Yin, and Individual Image). Such a creation (an individual) is called an “individual truth being.” This is what is meant in the Divine Principle when it states that a creation is an individual truth being in the image of the dual characteristics of God.

Relationship between Logos and All Things
Next, I will discuss the relationship between Logos and all things. In the Bible it is written that God made all things with the Word (John 1:1-3). According to the Divine Principle, the Word is Logos (DP, 170). Also it is written that “Since God, the subject partner of the Logos, exists with dual characteristics, the Logos as His object partner should also be composed of dual characteristics. If the Logos were without dual characteristics, all things made through it would not be composed of dual characteristics” (DP, 170-171). This means that the dual characteristics of a creation resemble the dual characteristics of Logos, and that the dual characteristics of Logos resemble the dual characteristics of God. Hence, we might be inclined to believe that the dual characteristics of Logos and the dual characteristics of God are precisely the same. From the perspective of Unification Thought, however, the dual characteristics of Logos are the duality of Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang, whereas the dual characteristics of God are the duality of Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang. In other words, the dual characteristics of God and the dual characteristics of Logos are not precisely the same. Thus, the resemblance of all things to the dual characteristics of God means a resemblance to the Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang of God, whereas the resemblance of all things to the dual characteristics of Logos means a resemblance to the Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang of Logos. Then, what aspect of Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang do all things resemble?

As stated before, Logos is a perfected plan, or a living plan, formed at the second stage of the inner developmental give and receive action, by means of the injection of a part of the spiritual apperception into a new idea (an idea-mold), which was formed in the first stage of the inner developmental give and receive action. Thus, the Inner Sungsang of Logos is a part of the faculties of intellect, emotion and will which is put into an idea-mold, and the Inner Hyungsang of Logos is that idea-mold itself. This is what is meant by the dual characteristics of Logos as Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang. These are the dual characteristics of Logos which the Divine Principle says the dual characteristics of a created being resemble.

It should be noted here that a created being in the spatio-temporal world, does not resemble the dual characteristics of Logos as such. Logos is a living plan, an idea with vitality. It is something like a picture in a movie, or an image in our dream. When it is said that actual humans and other creations resemble the dual characteristics of Logos, it means that they resemble those living and moving images. In other words, humans and other creations existing as living images (i.e., in Logos) resemble actual humans and other creations except for the fact that they do not have tangible bodies. In order for them to become beings with tangible bodies, they must resemble the dual characteristics of God. In other words, they must resemble the Original Sungsang and Original Hyung-sang of God.

Then, how do they come to resemble the Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang of God? They do so when the material element (pre-energy) within Original Hyungsang permeates into the fine spatial structure of a living mold within Original Sungsang, the process whereby outer give and receive action takes place. Through this outer give and receive action, a moving image comes to have a tangible body and it becomes an actual substantial being. Thus, a creation becomes that which resembles the dual characteristics of God.

I hope that I have now clarified how the dual characteristics of God and the dual characteristics of Logos are different from each other. I hope, too, that I have clarified the difference between them when we say that a creation resembles the dual characteristics of God, and when we say that it resembles the dual characteristics of Logos. I will now discuss origin, division, and union action, or Chung-Boon-Hap action, which is related to the give and receive action.

D. Origin, Division, and Union Action

What Is Origin, Division, and Union Action?
As already explained, give and receive action takes place on the basis of the four position foundation. In other words, in order for give and receive action to take place, the four positions of center, subject, object and result should necessarily be established. Every phenomenon takes place in time and space. Give and receive action seen from the viewpoint of space is the four position foundation. Give and receive action can also be seen from the viewpoint of time, and the temporal perception of give and receive action is “origin, division, and union action” (or Chung-Boon-Hap action). In other words, give and receive action as the process of the formation of the four position foundation is origin, division, and union action. First, the center is established, next, subject and object are established, and finally, the result is established. Thus, give and receive action in terms of three stages is the origin, division, and union action (see fig. 1.12).

In the Divine Principle, it is written that “the four position foundation is realized by God, husband and wife, and children; they complete the three stages of origin, division, and union action. Hence, the four position foundation is the root of the principle of three stages” (DP, 25). This passage indicates that the four position foundation is give and receive action when seen from the viewpoint of space, and origin, division, and union action when seen from the viewpoint of time. Hence, the content of origin, division, and union action is entirely the same as that of give and receive action. That is, centering on the purpose based on Heart, subject and object engage in harmonious give and receive action thereby forming a union or a new being. Therefore, the types of origin, division, and union action correspond with those of give and receive action. Hence, there are four kinds of origin, division, and union action: inner identity-maintaining origin, division, and union action, outer identity-maintaining origin, division, and union action, inner developmental origin, division, and union action, and outer developmental origin, division, and union action.

Origin-Division-Union and Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis
The temporal concept of origin, division, and union action has special significance when compared with the Communist materialistic dialectic. Communism is based on the materialistic dialectic, which is a theory of the development of nature that consists of the following three laws: the law of contradiction (or the law of the unity and struggle of opposites), the law of transformation from quantity to quality, and the law of the negation of the negation. It is well-known that Marx inherited the concept of the dialectic from Hegel’s idealistic dialectic, and that he connected it to materialism. Hegel introduced the basic form of dialectic development: thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, or affirmation, negation, and negation of negation.

Marxism critically inherited this dialectical form from Hegel, and made use of it in explaining the development of nature and history. According to the materialist dialectic, in development, a thing (affirmation, or thesis) necessarily comes to have an element within itself (antithesis) that negates the thing, and they come to oppose each other (this state is called opposition or contradiction). This opposition (contradiction) is negated again (negation of negation), and is transcended to a higher stage (synthesis). This is the three-stage dialectical form of development. Here, transcendence refers to the fact that when a thing is negated (and again negated), the affirmative elements within the thing are retained and the thing is elevated to a new stage.

Let us consider the process of the hatching of a chicken egg. An egg (thesis) contains within itself an embryo (antithesis), which negates the egg and, as the embryo grows, the opposition or contradiction between them becomes greater, and finally this contradiction is transcended, and the egg is negated. At this time, the yolk and the white, which are the affirmative elements, are absorbed (in other words, preserved) as nutrition into the embryo, bringing about a chick. Marxism also applied this form of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis to its explanation of social development. For example, the development of capitalist society into socialist society is explained as follows: Capitalist society (thesis) necessarily has within itself the proletarian class (antithesis), which negates the capitalist society. With the growth of the proletarian class, the class struggle intensifies, and finally the capitalist society collapses. At this time, the affirmative elements of the capitalist society―economic development, technical development, etc―are preserved and they are inherited by socialist society, which is a higher stage of society (synthesis).

Critique of the Theory of Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis
Here, I will discuss the dialectic of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, and clarify whether it is correct or incorrect. Its correctness depends on whether development in nature and society are actually in accordance with the process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, or not. In other words, what should be clarified is whether or not the dialectic form of development is in accordance with actual processes. This must be analyzed, since Marxism has claimed that the materialist dialectic is science, and that Marxism is a philosophy which has appeared in order to solve actual problems―the structural problems and ills of capitalism. In fact, neither the materialist dialectic nor the dialectic form of development is in accordance with actuality, and neither has been successful in solving actual problems. The materialist dialectic and the dialectic form of development are false. Let me analyze them more concretely to support this contention.

Let me first critique the dialectic form of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, taking the hatching of an egg as an example. First, the embryo within an egg is not something which appeared afterwards as a negative element whereby hatching is accomplished, but rather it was a part of the egg from the very beginning, together with the shell, white and yolk. The embryo, which is part of an egg, can not negate the egg. If the embryo were to negate the egg, it would have to have been something that did not originally exist within the egg, but would have to have appeared as a negation within the egg sometime afterwards. This is in accordance with the process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. In reality, however, the embryo existed as a part of the egg from the very beginning. Second, it is unreasonable to say that the yolk and white are negated in the hatching, since they are simply absorbed as nutrients by the embryo. This is actually an affirmation. Third, it is not true that the embryo becomes a chick, a new being, when the shell is broken, whereby the egg is negated. The fact is that the chick, which has already developed into a chick (a new being), comes out by pecking the shell open. Thus, the hatching of an egg does not follow the dialectic form of development―thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.

Next, I will critique the dialectic development of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis as it is applied to social development. According to this theory, capitalist society (thesis) is negated by the proletarian class (antithesis) existing within itself, whereby it is changed into a socialist society (synthesis), which is a society at a higher stage, and the achievements of capitalist society are preserved in the socialist society. However, this scenario was not the case in reality.

It was to be expected that the advanced capitalist countries, such as Great Britain, the United States, France, and Japan would first be changed into socialist countries. But this was not the case. On the contrary, socialism was established in the underdeveloped countries, to which this formula could not be applied. Second, when socialism was established in the underdeveloped countries, the early capitalistic achievements in their countries prior to revolution were not preserved, but were rather damaged, and the economy actually regressed to a still earlier stage. That is why Lenin had to carry out the New Economy Policy (NEP) after the revolution, and Deng Xiaoping, after the Cultural Revolution, acknowledged the failure of the Chinese economy.

Thus, the dialectic form of development, or thesis, antithesis, and synthesis, which was applied to social development, proved discordant with actual historical facts. The former Eastern European socialist countries, along with the former Soviet Union, the suzerain socialist country, which were supposed to be economically more developed than capitalist countries, came to an economic deadlock, and as a result, they finally collapsed. This fact proves beyond any doubt the falseness of the materialist dialectic form of development: thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. Thus, the materialist dialectic theory of development totally failed in solving actual problems, since it was not in accordance with natural phenomena or with historical facts.

E. Unity in the Structure of the Original Image

As explained earlier, the structure of the Original Image is the correlative relationship between Sungsang and Hyungsang in the Divine Image. Through clarification of this structure, it has become possible to arrive at standards for solving various actual problems, since most problems are those of relationships, and they are caused by improper relationships. In other words, once the structure of the Original Image is clarified, thus clarifying the original structure of relationships in all things, then all kinds of problems have the possibility of being fundamentally and eternally solved. What should be added here, concerning the structure of the Original Image, is why the concept of structure is necessary and what the Original Image is when seen from the viewpoint of structure.

Traditionally, the word “structure” has been used in explaining the interrelations between such things as materials in a building, or in a machine. It has been used when we analyze the mechanics of material beings: the structure of the human body, the structure of the economy, the structure of a molecule, the structure of an atom, and so on. Thus, when we investigate things we commonly use the concept of structure. If the concept of structure is extended, we may use it in analyzing immaterial things such as consciousness, spirit, and so on. In fact, such terms as the “structure of mind,” “spiritual structure,” and so on have also been used.

Coming from this perspective, I used the concept of structure in treating the attributes of the invisible God. We can understand the attributes of God in detail, especially Sungsang and Hyungsang, by using the concept of structure. However, even when doing so and, indeed, when classifying the various kinds of give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang, we must not forget that in reality the Original Image transcends time and space. Then, what is the reality of the Original Image which we discuss here using concepts of structure or time and space?

In a word, the Original Image is a oneness. Since there is no space, there is no position, no front or back, no right or left, no up or down, no inside or outside, no wide or narrow, no far or near, and there is no shape, such as triangle or square. Infinity and the infinitesimal are the same. The Original Image is the multidimensional world in which all spaces are overlapping in one point. At the same time, it is the world from which up and down, front and back, right and left, and inside and outside are extended infinitely.

Moreover, there is no time in the Original Image. However, if we must use a temporal concept, past, present, and future are all united in a “now.” This can be compared to a reel of motion picture film in which past, present, and future are all contained. Time is united in one point. In other words, there is eternity in a moment, and a moment is in eternity. Thus, a moment and eternity are the same. This means that the Original Image is the world of “pure continuance” (the state in which Sungsang and Hyungsang, Yang and Yin are united). In other words, “pure continuance” characterizes time in the Original Image.

In short, the Original Image is “pure oneness.” Not only time and space, but the causes of all other phenomena (except for the non-principled phenomena related with the human fall) are united in a single point. In other words, all phenomena in the universe including time and space appeared from this oneness. Just as an infinite number of infinitely long lines can be drawn above and below, front and back, right and left from a single point, the world of time and space expands infinitely from this oneness into the directions of above and below, front and back, and right and left.

No matter how vast and boundless the universe may be, and no matter how complex the phenomena and movements in the universe may be, the fundamental principles which rule time and space and all phenomena in the universe lie in this single point, namely, oneness. In other words, the principle of unification, the principle of give and receive action, and the principle of love lie in this single point. Hence, space was developed from the single point of the four position foundation, and time was developed from the single point of origin, division, and union action.

F. Ideal of Creation

What Is the Ideal of Creation?
The ideal of creation is related to the structure of the Original Image since it is directly related to the purpose of creation, which is the center of the four position foundation. Generally speaking, an ideal refers to a state wherein our hope or desire is fully realized. Why do we have hope and desire? Because we want to obtain joy. How is joy produced? Joy arises when love is realized, since the basis of joy is the impulse of Heart, namely, the impulse of love. Concerning the question of how joy is produced, Divine Principle explains as follows:

God wanted His creations to be object partners embodying goodness that He might take delight in them (DP, 32).
Joy is the purpose of creation, and joy can only be attained when desire is fulfilled (DP, 70).
Joy arises when we have an object partner in which our internal nature and external form are reflected and developed (DP, 33).
The three great blessings are fulfilled when the whole creation, including human beings, completes the four position foundation with God as the center. This is the Kingdom of Heaven, where ultimate goodness is realized and God feels the greatest joy. This is, in fact, the very purpose for which God created the universe (DP, 32-33).

In sum, the purpose for which God created the universe is to seek joy, and joy is attained when an object partner embodies goodness, when one’s desire is fulfilled, when an object partner resembles the subject, and when the purpose of goodness is realized. In other words, God’s joy is attained first when a creation becomes the object partner of goodness, resembling God, whereby God’s desire is fulfilled, and second, when a reciprocal relationship between God and a creation is established. The fulfillment of God’s desire is, in other words, the fulfillment of His hope or wish. It is the realization of God’s ideal. The object partner of goodness is the object partner of love, since the basis of goodness is love. The resemblance of a creation to God refers to its resemblance to the harmonious give and receive action between God’s Sungsang and Hyungsang, and its resemblance to God’s act of love. This is in accordance with what is written in the Divine Principle: “God’s purpose of creation can be achieved only through love” (DP, 59). Hence, the meaning of God’s ideal becomes clear. It is the state where God’s intention (or hope) at the time of creation is fully realized, and the state where God’s love is fully realized through human beings who resemble God.

Difference between Purpose of Creation and Ideal of Creation
Let me clarify the difference between the purpose of creation and the ideal of creation. The purpose of creation is to attain joy as is written in the Divine Principle. Joy is attained when desire is fulfilled. The fulfillment of desire is the fulfillment of hope or wish. The fulfillment of God’s wish is none other than the realization of the ideal of creation. Therefore, it is concluded that the fulfillment of God’s desire as well as the attainment of God’s joy can be achieved when the ideal of creation is realized. Ultimately, God’s purpose of creation is the realization of the ideal of creation. This is in accordance with what the Divine Principle states: “Had God’s purpose of creation been realized in this way, an ideal world without even a trace of sin would have been established on the earth” (DP, 36).

Here, I will clarify, for the purpose of aiding our understanding, the difference between the purpose of creation of human beings and the purpose of creation of all things. The purpose for which God created human beings and all things was to seek joy by seeing them. Yet, direct, exciting, and deep loving joy can be felt only through human beings. God also feels joy from all things. God’s joy from all things, however, can not be as exciting as that from human beings. Nevertheless, God’s joy from all things was to be attained indirectly through human beings who had perfected themselves. In fact, human beings are God’s embodied object partners in image, while all things are God’s embodied object partners in symbol (DP, 28). This means that all things were created as the direct object partners of joy for human beings. Concerning this point, Divine Principle writes as follows: “The natural world is an object partner which exhibits human internal nature and external form in diverse ways. Hence, ideal human beings receive stimulation from the world of nature. Sensing their own internal nature and external form displayed throughout the creation, they feel immense joy” (DP, 35).

Since the individual images for all things are different from kind to kind, the purposes for their creation are supposed to be different, respectively, from kind to kind. However, nothing is mentioned about this in the Divine Principle. For example, the purposes of creation for flowers and the purposes of creation for birds are not the same; however, there is no explanation about this. There is no explanation because there is no real need to clarify each individual purpose of creation. The purpose of creation for flowers is to make human beings joyful when seeing the beauty of flowers, and the purpose of creation for birds is to make human beings joyful when hearing the singing of birds. In the Divine Principle, the purpose of creation for all things refers to the common aspect among the various purposes of creation for all things.

In addition to the original meaning explained above, the purpose of creation in the Divine Principle sometimes refers to the purpose for being created, and the ideal of creation. The original meaning of the purpose of creation is that “God seeks joy through created beings.” In other words, the purpose of creation is “the purpose established by God, the Creator,” and at the same time “the purpose established in His creation.” In the Divine Principle, however, the purpose of creation is used also in the sense of the purpose for being created. For example, “a person who has realized the purpose of creation” (DP, 112, 167) means “a person who has realized the purpose for being created.” To be precise, the purpose of creation is the purpose of God, the Creator, to seek joy, and the purpose for being created is the purpose of human beings to return joy to God.

Our purpose in making a watch is “to know time,” and a watch is made “to tell us time,” which is the purpose of a watch being made. The purpose of making and the purpose for being made are different. Likewise, the purpose of creation and the purpose for being created are different. What we should do for God is not “to feel joy” (like God’s purpose of creation), but rather “to return joy” (the purpose for being created). Let me examine the purpose of creation in the following statement: “God could not accomplish His purpose of creation due to the human Fall” (DP, 155). The purpose of creation here clearly means that “God seeks joy,” and it is different from the purpose of creation in “a person who has realized the purpose of creation” mentioned above.

Consider an example in which the purpose of creation is used in the meaning of the ideal of creation. Divine Principle says that “God’s providence to have fallen people establish the foundation upon which they could receive the Messiah, and thence complete the purpose of creation, began with Adam’s family” (DP, 181). It is unnatural to interpret “the purpose of creation” in this statement as “to seek joy.” Rather, it is more natural to interpret it in the sense of meaning the ideal of creation, which is “the state in which God’s love is fully realized.” This point also becomes clear if we examine the following statement: “This foreshadowed that when Christ comes again, he will surely be able to realize God’s ideal of creation, which will never again be withdrawn from the earth” (DP, 202). The meaning of “ideal of creation” in this sentence and “purpose of creation” in the previous sentence are the same. It is not natural to interpret “ideal of creation” in this sentence in the sense of the original meaning of the purpose of creation, namely, to seek joy. Therefore, we should interpret “purpose of creation” in the previous statement in the sense of the “ideal of creation.”

Thus, in the Divine Principle, the purpose of creation is often used in the sense of the purpose for being created, or in the sense of the ideal of creation. In Unification Thought, however, a distinction is made between these concepts. When there is no need to distinguish between them, in other words, when either the purpose of creation or the purpose for being created can be used, or when a specific purpose is mentioned, we simply use “purpose.”

I have clarified the difference between the ideal of creation and the purpose of creation. In sum, the ideal of creation refers to “the state in which the goal is realized,” and the purpose of creation refers to “the goal” which will be realized in the future. In fact, as already stated, the ideal of creation is “the state in which God’s love is fully realized through human beings who resemble God.” On the other hand, the purpose of creation is “to seek joy through the object partner,” which is the goal to attain in the future. If we speak in grammatical terms, the ideal of creation is expressed in the future perfect tense, while the purpose of creation is expressed in the future tense. Hence, the ideal of creation is “the state in which the purpose of creation has been realized,” and the purpose of creation is attained when the ideal of creation is realized.

Ideal of Creation Is the State in Which God’s Love Is Fully Realized
Then, what is “the state in which God’s love is fully realized”? To state the conclusion, it is “the state in which the ideal person, the ideal family, the ideal society, and the ideal world are realized.” Here the ideal person refers to the ideal man or woman who has realized the unity between mind and body, resembling God’s harmony of Sungsang and Hyungsang; the ideal man or woman who can realize God’s love to all human beings and all things; and the ideal man or woman who can serve God as the True Parents.” Such a person is one who has realized Jesus’ Words: “You, therefore, must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect” (Matt. 5:48). Hence, such a person is “unique in all the cosmos,” “the lord of the entire natural world,” and the possessor of “the value of the cosmos” (DP, 166).

An ideal family is formed through the marriage of such an ideal man and woman, resembling the harmony of God’s Yang and Yin. Such a loving family will love their neighbors, society, nation, world, and all things and it will attend God as True Parents. When ideal families congregate to form a society, that society will be filled with love, resembling the image of God, and attend God as the True Parents, while realizing harmony with other societies. That is the ideal society. As ideal societies expand to form the world, this will become the world resembling the image of God, where all humankind enters into the relationship of brotherhood, while attending God as the True Parents of humankind, and they will live a life of eternal peace, prosperity and happiness. This is the ideal world, the utopia about which saints, sages, righteous people, and philosophers have dreamed since the beginning of history.

Love is realized by people living lives centered on the values of truth, goodness and beauty. Hence, the ideal world is a world of values, and will be a unified world characterized by the three major spheres of true life, ethical life and artistic life, and at the same time it will be a society of “mutual existence, mutual prosperity and mutual righteousness,” wherein God’s love is realized in politics, economy, and religion (ethics). This is the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. The ideal of creation refers to the state wherein such an ideal human being, ideal family, ideal society and ideal world are realized. Once such a state is realized, once the ideal of creation is realized, then God’s purpose of creation, namely, His original desire to seek eternal joy will be fulfilled. This concludes my explanation of the ideal of creation.

Now, let us consider the theme, “Traditional Ontologies and Unification Thought.” I would like to briefly introduce an outline of some traditional ontologies along with short comments about them in order to highlight the limitations they faced in solving actual problems. In this way, it will become more evident that Unification Thought can serve as a standard for solving actual problems.