II. Unification Methodology―Give and Receive Method

The methodology of Unification Thought is based on the Divine Principle, and is called Unification methodology. This has also the meaning that it unifies traditional methodologies. The fundamental law of Unification methodology is the “method of give and receive action,” which is simply called the “give and receive method.”

A. Kinds of Give and Receive Action

Give and receive action refers to the interaction between subject and object, and this action has a center, which serves as the motive for this action. The nature of give and receive action is determined by the nature of the center. When give and receive action is carried out centering on Heart, subject and object become united, and the result of the give and receive action is a union. When a purpose is set up by Heart, however, and give and receive action takes place centering on that purpose, a multiplied being, or a new being, is produced.

The four position foundation in the Original Image is a notion dealing with the structure of God’s attributes, which is the structure of four positions consisting of Heart (or purpose) as the center, subject, object, and a union (or a multiplied being). Seen from the viewpoint of time, Heart (or purpose), which is the center, exists first; then, with that as the starting point, subject and object enter into give and receive action; as a result, a union or a multiplied being is formed. Here, Heart, which is the center, stands as Origin (Chung); subject and object stand as Division (Boon), in the sense that they are separated and placed face-to-face with each other; and union or multiplied being, namely, a result, stands as Union (Hap). The whole process of this give and receive action is called Origin, Division, and Union Action (Chung-Boon-Hap Action) (see fig. 11.2).

Division, in Origin-Division-Union Action means not that the Origin is divided into two halves, but that two elements are separated and placed face-to-face with each other, centering on the Origin. Division (Boon) in God means that each of the two attributes of one God are related to each other. Those two correlative attributes enter into give and receive action centering on Origin (Chung) and form Union (Hap). There are four kinds of give and receive action: identity-maintaining, developmental, inner, and outer give and receive actions. Corresponding to these, four kinds of four position foundation are formed, namely, identity-maintaining, developmental, inner, and outer four position foundations.

Identity-Maintaining and Developmental Give and Receive Actions
In God, there is the identity-maintaining, unchanging aspect in which His Sungsang and Hyungsang engage in give and receive action centering on Heart, and He exists eternally as a harmonized being, or a union; then, there is also the developmental aspect, in which His Sungsang and Hyungsang engage in give and receive action centering on purpose (purpose of creation) and produce a multiplied being, or a new being, namely, a created being. The first form of give and receive action is identity-maintaining give and receive action; the second is developmental give and receive action. All beings in the created world also perform identity-maintaining and developmental give and receive actions, maintaining both unchanging and changing (developmental) aspects.

The appearance of the universe is considered to be relatively and generally unchanging. The galaxy constantly maintains the same shape of a convex lens while revolving around the center of the universe. Within it, our solar system revolves around the center of the galaxy in a cycle of 250 million years, but is always located at the same distance from the center of the galaxy. Moreover, the disk shape of the solar system is also unchanging. The solar system has nine planets, each of which maintains its unchanged orbit while revolving around the sun. Each planet maintains its definite characteristics. In this way, the universe has unchanging, or identity-maintaining, aspects.

Yet, when seen in terms of the long period of about fifteen billion years, the universe is also found to be developing and growing. Scientists explain this fact by saying that the universe is expanding, or evolving. The universe has changed from a gaseous state into a solid state, whereby innumerable large and small heavenly bodies were formed; and on the surface of one of the planets (earth), plants, animals, and humans appeared. This process of the universe can be regarded as a kind of process of growth or development. In this way, the universe has both the aspect of identity-maintenance and that of development.

Living beings, as well, develop while maintaining their identity. In plants, seeds sprout, trunks grow, leaves develop, flowers blossom and bear fruits; in this way, they grow constantly. Still, they maintain their unchanging aspect in that they continue to exist as the same species of plant. Particular kinds of plants continue to produce the same kinds of flowers, the same kinds of fruits, etc. In other words, a plant has both the aspect of identity-maintenance and the aspect of development. Likewise, animals develop and grow while maintaining their own identity.

The same can be said of human society. In history, the rise and fall of states was continually repeated. Yet, everywhere and always the basic pattern of a state, in which the sovereign and the people are in the relationship of subject and object, remains identical. The same can be said of a family. While there were variations in the appearances of families according to the environment and the age, the relationships between parents and children, husband and wife, and so on, are unchanging. Also, individual persons constantly grow while maintaining their own characteristics as individuals. In this way, according to the law of give and receive action, in every being, unchanging characteristics (identity-maintenance) and changing characteristics (development) are united.

Inner and Outer Give and Receive Actions
Within God’s Original Sungsang, the Inner Sungsang and the Inner Hyungsang engage in give and receive action centering on Heart, forming a union. Through that, the inner four position foundation is formed, which is the internal structure of God’s Sungsang. Next, the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang engage in give and receive action, forming a union. At this point, it is the outer four position foundation that is formed. When purpose is established in Heart, give and receive action assumes a dynamic, developmental nature. In the inner four position foundation, Logos (conception) is formed as a multiplied being, and in the outer four position foundation, created beings are formed as multiplied beings.

This two-stage structure of inner and outer four position foundations in God is applied without change to the creation. In the relationships between human being and all things (nature), through an inner give and receive action, the human being thinks and establishes conceptions (plans); while at the same time, through an outer give and receive action, human beings cognize and have dominion over all things. In humans, if we designate the give and receive action between spirit mind and physical mind within the human mind as the inner give and receive action, then the give and receive action between one person and another person (e.g., the give and receive action between husband and wife in a family) is the outer give and receive action. If we designate the exchanges among family members in a household as inner give and receive actions, then their exchanges with other people in society become outer give and receive actions.

Even a state has inner and outer give and receive actions. Within a state, the government and the people engage in relationships of subject and object, and thereby politics and economics are carried out. This is inner give and receive action. At the same time, political and economic relations are formed with other states; this is outer give and receive action.

In the world of nature as well, there are inner and outer give and receive actions. In the solar system, inner give and receive action takes place between the sun and the planets; at the same time, the solar system is performing outer give and receive action with other stars. Also, if we designate the give and receive action within the earth the inner give and receive action, then the give and receive action between the sun and the earth is called outer give and receive action. In living beings, inner give and receive action occurs between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in each cell, while cells perform outer give and receive action with one another.

In this way, in the relationships between human beings and all things, as well as in the relationships in human society and even in the creation, inner and outer give and receive actions take place in unity. As these inner and outer give and receive actions are carried out smoothly and harmoniously, things maintain their existence and continue to develop. Examples of inner and outer give and receive actions are shown in figure 11.3.

Now, let us consider the deductive and inductive methods of reasoning in relation to inner and outer give and receive actions. The deductive method is a method of logical development through inner give and receive action that takes place within the human mind. In contrast, the inductive method is the method of examining things in the external world―therefore, it is a method based on outer give and receive action. In Unification methodology, inner and outer give and receive actions take place in unity. Therefore, in Unification methodology, the inductive and deductive methods are united.

B. Scope of Give and Receive Action

The give and receive method is the fundamental method for existence and development in God, human beings, and nature. God, while maintaining His eternal nature through inner and outer identity-maintaining give and receive actions, created humankind and all things through inner and outer developmental give and receive actions.

In humankind, and in all things, each individual (individual truth being) maintains its existence and develops as the correlative elements within it perform inner give and receive action, and at the same time each individual performs outer give and receive action with other individuals. Give and receive action between individuals includes give and receive action between human beings, between human beings and all things, and between all things.

First, there is give and receive action between one human being and another, which includes individual interaction in family life and in social life. Educational, ethical, political, economic, and all other activities are carried out through this give and receive action.

Next is the give and receive action between human beings and all things. In this type of give and receive action, there are two cases, namely, those cases in which a human being exercises dominion over all things, and those cases in which a human being cognizes all things. The cognition of all things includes the basic study of the natural sciences, the exploration and appreciation of nature, and so forth. Dominion over all things includes applied research in the natural sciences, business and economic activities, creative activities in art, and so forth.

Finally, there is the give and receive action between one thing and another. In nature, numerous elements form an orderly organic world as they engage in give and receive actions through their respective positions―such as the give and receive action among atoms, among cells, and among stars. The interaction between parts of a machine is another example of this case.

Thinking and conversation are also carried out based on the give and receive action. That is to say, as the subjective part in thinking (inner Sungsang), namely, the functions of intellect, emotion, and will, and the objective part (inner Hyungsang), namely, ideas, concepts, laws, mathematical principles, etc., enter into give and receive action, human thinking is conducted.

Judgment in thinking is also based on give and receive action. For example, in the judgment, “this flower is a rose,” a contrast-type of give and receive action takes place, wherein one compares the idea “this flower” with the idea “rose.” Conversation, also, is carried out through give and receive action. I can understand what another person is saying because the notions and concepts of that person are in accord with mine, and also because the laws of thinking of the other person are in accord with mine. However, if a person talks nonsense, I can not understand what that person is saying.

C. Types of Give and Receive Action
Give and receive action has the following five types, which were explained in
Ontology:
(1) Bi-Conscious Type
(2) Uni-Conscious Type
(3) Unconscious Type
(4) Heteronomous Type
(5) Contrast Type (Collation Type)

D. Characteristics of Give and Receive Action
Give and receive action has the following seven characteristics, which were
also explained in Ontology:
(1) Correlativity
(2) Purposefulness and Centrality
(3) Order and Position
(4) Harmony
(5) Individuality and Connectedness
(6) Identity-Maintaining Nature and Developmental Nature
(7) Circular Motion